In general, the CDC considers travelers to be immunocompromised f

In general, the CDC considers travelers to be immunocompromised for 3 months after their last chemotherapeutic treatment.[15] Because the duration of immunosuppression following cancer treatment can vary widely, having specific knowledge of the therapeutic strategies and duration of their associated immunosuppressive effects used in patients with cancer is required. This highlights how in addition to the guidelines, it is crucial to obtain a detailed treatment history in these patients that extends beyond when the last cancer treatment Selleck XL184 was given, taking into account the current net state of immunosuppression when counseling and administering prophylactic vaccines and medications to this group of travelers.

VFR was the second most common reason for travel in this study. It is well known in the literature that VFR represents a disproportionately higher volume of international travel and VFR travelers are an established

higher risk group less likely to seek pre-travel health advice and stay longer at risk areas.[2, 16] They are also at increased risk of acquiring travel-related infections such as malaria and typhoid fever due to lack of compliance with preventive measures.[22, 23] Pre-travel health counseling and preventive interventions to immunocompromised VFR travelers are highly important given that they are at “double epidemiological risk” of travel-related infections because of their click here impaired immune status and behavioral and environmental risk related Fenbendazole to contact with the local population and adaptation of local habits. In this study, one in two travelers presented to the travel clinic within 4 weeks prior to departure. Obtaining pre-travel health advice 28 days or more prior to travel is recommended by the CDC to provide enough time for preventive measures to be effective at the start of travel.[15] An interval of 10 to 14 days is required for protective immune responses to develop in the majority of immunocompetent

travelers for the three travel-related vaccines administered in this study.[24-26] In addition, administration of certain malaria prophylaxis medications such as mefloquine and chloroquine should commence 1 to 2 weeks prior to travel for efficacy and tolerability.[15] Presenting in a timely manner for pre-travel health interventions is even more important for immunocompromised travelers. The immunocompromised host is less responsive to vaccinations and protective levels of vaccines may also be of shorter duration. Studies of SOT recipients and patients infected with HIV have shown lower serological response to hepatitis A, typhoid fever, and yellow fever vaccines.[27-30] Studies are lacking to evaluate the response to travel-related vaccines in immunocompromised cancer patients and SCT recipients and thus specific guidelines regarding travel-related vaccine administration to these groups of travelers are absent.

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