In particular, a small peptide derived from the MSMB protein has

In particular, a small peptide derived from the MSMB protein has been shown to exhibit anti tumor properties and has been sug gested as a potential therapeutic agent in prostate can cer. It will be interesting to determine whether this peptide may be useful in reversing drug resistance in ovarian cancer and we are currently investigating this enticing possibility. RFTN1 is another gene consistently downregulated in all three drug resistance phenotype and it encodes a lipid raft protein. RFTN1 is located on chromosome 3p24, a region shown to be frequently deleted in ovarian cancer, including in OV90 cells. This gene has also been shown to be mutated in some ovarian tumors, suggesting that it may represent a genuine tumor suppressor gene in this disease. Our results suggest that it may also be involved in drug resistance.

Multiple mechanisms {over at this website| selleck|selleck|selleck chemicals|ML323 dissolve solubility can mediate the development of drug resistance and include 1 changes in the regulation or repair of the primary target of the drug, 2 drug retention, 3 increased drug inactivation or sequestration, 4 signaling pathways that affect survival. For cisplatin, copper transporter CTR1 has been shown to play a crucial role in cisplatin uptake and knockout of the CTR1 alleles can lead to resistance to cisplatin toxicity. On the other hand, paclitaxel and doxorubi cin are known substrates for the ATP dependent efflux pump P glycoprotein and up regulation of MDR1 has been associated with clinical drug resistance in multiple systems. While we failed to observe changes in the expression of CTR1 in cisplatin resistant lines, we did identify MDR1 as one of our most up regulated genes in all the resistant phenotypes, including cisplatin resis tant cells.

Genes of the GAGE and MAGEA family have also been found elevated in drug resistance. In particu lar, MAGEA3,6,11,12 as well as GAGE2,4,5,6 and 7 were found elevated in ovarian cancer cells resistant to pacli taxel and doxorubicin. In this study, we also find GAGE5,6,7 and XAGE1 to be consistently elevated in the various drug resistant lines, selelck kinase inhibitor although the levels var ied according to the resistance phenotype. While drug resistance development clearly involves changes in a large number of genes and pathways, we wondered whether pathway analysis may help us identify dominant pathways for each drug resistance pheno type. Using pathway analysis, we were indeed able to identify several dominant pathways altered in the differ ent drug resistant cells. Different pathway databases identified different pathways, likely because of variations in annotation and curation, but comparison of the results from different databases allowed us to find pathways that were consistently iden tified. In cisplatin derived resistance, we fre quently found changes in ECM pathways altered.

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