In terms of staging of patients during stratification in trial enrolment, we may need to take lessons from new insights emerging from studies on disease tissue (via the Network for Pancreatic Organ Donors with Diabetes; nPOD ) and Phase III clinical trials failing to reach end-points [12, 13]. Both of these imply that type 1 diabetes may be a very heterogeneous disease, manifesting differently in different patient groups and geographical locations. selleck screening library An intriguing example is that of abatacept, which appeared to worsen clinical outcome in African American subjects . In addition, the average age at disease onset of patients
enrolled on the Indian subcontinent into the teplizumab Phase III study was 44 years , an age of disease onset that would usually be considered at the very upper limit. With the exception of oral insulin  and proinsulin peptide immunotherapy , immunological parameters have not generally been used in selection or randomization of patients in clinical trials.
Lessons from the islet transplantation setting, in which baseline immune correlates determine clinical outcome [17-19], may be of use here and it is conceivable that incorporating immune correlates into trial design may improve the chance of detecting click here therapeutic efficacy and indicate subpopulations of patients with particular benefit, lack of efficacy or even adverse responses to certain immune intervention strategies . While common beliefs
advocate a combination of drugs for intervention (Table 5), it is important to scrutinize potential adverse interference, as may have played a role in the recent trial combining low-dose interleukin (IL)-2 and rapamycin, in Fenbendazole which each of the separate constituents could have yielded clinical benefit . Preclinical studies should be used carefully to identify those showing the desired synergy or any concerns in relation to the single components of combinations (i.e. accelerated disease, see below). Biological agents have proved to be immensely valuable in the treatment of autoimmune disease, and type 1 diabetes is no exception to this therapeutic track. Biologics targeting lymphocytes or co-stimulation events generally invoke immune suppression rather than modulation. This was perhaps most evident in case of the rituximab intervention study, in which patients were vaccinated under the treatment umbrella in a rare attempt to understand the mechanism of action of anti-CD20 immunotherapy. Indeed, rituximab blunted the induction of immune responses against a neoantigen, whereas after revaccination 1 year later (3 months after cessation of rituximab therapy) vigorous responses to the same neoantigen were established that did not differ from placebo-treated patients .