In the current study, we set out to determine which personal, socioeconomic, treatment-related and disease-related characteristics were independently associated with reported difficulty taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) in those respondents who were taking ART at the time of completing the HIV Futures 6 survey. The HIV Futures 6 survey was an anonymous, self-complete, cross-sectional survey. The survey contained 189 items organized into eight sections: demographics; accommodation; health and treatments; services and communities; sex and relationships;
employment; recreational drug use; and finances. The survey was largely based on the HIV Futures 5 survey , which was BIBW2992 molecular weight in turn based on the four previous surveys AG 14699 [27–30]. The content of the survey was developed in consultation with a number of organizations and individuals in the HIV/AIDS sector. Survey respondents were recruited through community organizations and clinical settings, as
well as through online and paper-based advertisements in community organization and gay media within Australia. Previous survey respondents who indicated that they were interested in participating in future research projects were also approached. Any HIV-positive individual residing in Australia was eligible to complete the survey. Data were collected from October 2008 to April 2009. The HIV Futures 6 survey included two items that asked respondents about their Cediranib (AZD2171) adherence to ART over the previous 2 days: ‘How many doses (dose times) of antiretroviral drugs did you miss yesterday?’ and ‘How many doses (dose times) of antiretroviral drugs did you miss the day before yesterday?’, with scores in the range 0–5 (a score of 5 representing ≥5 missed doses). The data from these survey items were highly skewed, with only 1.5% 
of those respondents currently taking ART indicating any nonadherence in the previous 2 days. As a result, we needed to use a proxy variable to assess factors associated with nonadherence to cART. We considered using two other survey items: (i) self-reported most recent viral load (detectable vs. undetectable) and (ii) self-reported difficulty taking ART (‘Do you experience any difficulties in taking antiretroviral drugs?’; yes/no responses). The viral load variable was also fairly skewed, with only 48 respondents currently taking ART (5.5%) reporting a detectable viral load. Hence, we chose to use self-reported difficulty taking ART as our outcome variable. This variable was found to be highly associated with both self-reported adherence (Fisher’s exact test; P=0.001) and respondents’ most recent viral load test result (detectable vs. undetectable viral load; χ2-test; P=0.018), and was therefore deemed to be a suitable proxy variable for investigating factors associated with poor adherence to ART.