, 1991) In these proteins, the conserved histidine residues act

, 1991). In these proteins, the conserved histidine residues act to co-ordinate an oxo-bridged di-iron cluster (Fe-O-Fe) that functions as part of the reaction center (Fox et al., 1993; Shanklin et al., 1994). The closest OlsE homologs

are present in all the sequenced Agrobacterium strains, Rhodospirillum centenum, Parvibaculum lamentivorans, Verrucomicrobium spinosum, Micavibrio aeruginosavorus, Y-27632 cell line and Azospirillum amazonense. More distant homologs are present in several actinomycetes, a few Gammaproteobacteria, and a few other Alphaproteobacteria (Table S1). No growth phenotype was observed for the OlsE–deficient mutant at increased temperatures or under pH stress conditions. Bean plants infected with OlsE-deficient mutants presented less red nodules and more white

nodules than plants infected with the wild type. Nitrogen fixation of nodules from OlsE mutant-infected plants was clearly reduced (Vences-Guzmán et al., 2011). In G. cerinus, a taurine residue can be amide-linked to the α-amino group of the ornithine moiety of OL (Tahara et al., b). It has been shown that a cell-free protein crude extract from G. cerinus contains an enzymatic activity responsible for the transfer of taurine to OL hydroxylated in the 2-position of the piggy-back fatty acid. This taurine transfer activity depends on the presence of ATP and bivalent cations (Tahara et al., b). As no G. cerinus strain has been sequenced so far, a bioinformatic search for Ibrutinib datasheet candidate genes/proteins has not been possible. The wealth of genome sequence information that has been produced in recent years allows for an accurate analysis of the distribution of OL biosynthesis

genes. Genes coding for OlsB have a high predictive value, and it should be possible to predict the capacity of an organism to synthesize OL from the presence of the olsB gene. In many cases, where the olsB gene is phylogenetically less well conserved, the fact that olsB often occurs in an operon with olsA is of help. For the purpose of predicting the distribution of OLs, we analyzed all sequenced bacterial genomes for the presence of a gene encoding an OlsB homolog. BLAST searches with OlsB sequences from S. meliloti and B. cenocepacia pick up OlsB homologs in about 25% of the sequenced bacterial species which belong to the Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma-, Deltaproteobacteria, Actinomycetales, spirochetes, Glutamate dehydrogenase green nonsulfur bacteria, verrucomicrobia, firmicutes, Aquificales, and cyanobacteria (Table S1). Within the class Alphaproteobacteria, OlsB homologs can be detected in most sequenced species belonging to the orders Rhizobiales, Rhodobacterales, and Rhodospirillales, but are generally absent from species belonging to the orders Caulobacterales, Rickettsiales, and Sphingomonadales. OlsB can also be detected in the majority of sequenced Betaproteobacteria, including most Burkholderiales and many Neisseriales, but are absent from the Nitrosomonales.

There is a paucity of research into the role of community pharmac

There is a paucity of research into the role of community pharmacists in Connected Health and large scale trials have had little or no involvement from pharmacists. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of delivering a Connected Health intervention through community pharmacies to patients with hypertension and to determine its effect on adherence to antihypertensive medications and blood pressure control. After ethical approval was obtained, four community pharmacies (A-D) recruited hypertensive

patients who had been regular users of their pharmacy for at least a year and had been taking at least two antihypertensives for at least six months prior to the study. All patients find more were sent medication

reminders to a mobile phone as either a text message (programmed using Google Calendar) or a video message (programmed using Mobile Phone-based Video Streaming software developed by the Computer Science Research Institute at University of Ulster Jordanstown). Each patient measured their blood pressure and confirmed they had taken their medication daily using a laptop at home. These readings were transmitted via the internet to a monitoring website (DGHome Event Manager, I+, Italy) through which the community pharmacist could view transmitted readings. If the patients failed to transmit a reading or a blood pressure reading fell outside pre-defined parameters, the community pharmacist would follow an algorithm to determine Decitabine how to proceed. Blood pressure and adherence scores (using the Medication Adherence Report Scale2) were compared before and after the intervention.

RGFP966 purchase In total, 11 patients were recruited (4 at Pharmacy A, 4 at Pharmacy B, 2 at Pharmacy C and 1 at Pharmacy D). An additional two patients withdrew soon after commencing. To date, 9 patients have completed the study period (the remaining two have still to attend a final meeting with their community pharmacist). Preliminary findings from those who have completed demonstrate that, on average, 83 blood pressure readings and 53 confirmations of adherence were transmitted by each patient during the study period. There was no significant difference in blood pressure (139/87 mmHg vs. 144/83 mmHg) or adherence scores (94.8% vs. 94.4%) before and after the intervention. One focus group consisting of three patients has taken place. Participants responded positively to the involvement of their community pharmacist in Connected Health but with recommendations for improvements such as reduced frequency of blood pressure measurement and improved internet connection. Interviews with three participating community pharmacists have taken place, with recommendations for improvements including less time commitment for patients, overcoming issues with the technology and less recruitment criteria.

53 cases per 100,000 population34 This represents a two-thirds d

53 cases per 100,000 population.34 This represents a two-thirds decline in incidence, from 0.92 in 1998 to 0.33 cases per 100,000 in 2007. The highest incidence observed in the United States occurred selleck compound in Oregon (1.52 cases per 100,000), resulting from ongoing hyperendemic serogroup B disease belonging to sequence type 41/44.31 The serogroup-specific incidence of B disease in Oregon was 1.01 cases per 100,000, compared with 0.15 cases per 100,000 in the other Active Bacterial Core Surveillance (ABCs) sites. Excluding Oregon isolates,

the serogroup distribution of ABCs isolates is 28.8% C, 29.9% B, 34.8% Y, and 6.1% W-135 and non-groupable. Serogroups A, X, and Z accounted for 1, 2, and 4 isolates in ABCs, respectively. Infants are at highest risk, with a second incidence

peak in late adolescence. Quadrivalent (A, C, Y, W-135) meningococcal conjugate vaccine has been recommended for adolescents since 2005, but was implemented without a catchup campaign.9 Among adolescents aged 11 to 19 years, 75% of cases are caused by serogroups contained in the quadrivalent vaccine. By 2007, coverage among adolescents reached 32.4%; however, the incidence of vaccine-preventable serogroups remained stable between the periods from 2004 to 2005 and 2006 to 2007, suggesting little observable early impact of the vaccination program.34,35 SRT1720 molecular weight By 2008, coverage had increased to 41.8%. In infants, 57% of cases are serogroup B, for which no vaccine is licensed in the United States. from In Canada, serogroups B, C, and Y are the most common causes of meningococcal disease (Figure 1).36 The overall incidence rates ranged from 0.62 in 2002 to 0.42 per 100,000 in 2006.37 In 2004 and 2005, serogroup-specific incidence was highest for serogroup B (0.27 and 0.30 per 100,000 persons, respectively).38 The highest rates were in children 0 to 4 years, followed by adolescents 15 to 19 years. Rates of disease in infants observed during 1995 through 2004 (average 9.2 per 100,000 persons) were comparable to those observed in infants in the United States in the same period (9.2 per 100,000 during 1991 through 2002).9,39 The occurrence of hyperendemic disease rates in children in certain provinces

prompted implementation of serogroup C meningococcal conjugate vaccination programs. Subsequently, the incidence of serogroup C disease decreased from 0.23 in 2002 to 0.08 per 100,000 in 2006. In contrast, the incidence remained stable for serogroups B, Y, and W-135. The decrease in serogroup C incidence occurred in provinces with the earliest immunization programs, and declines across all age groups suggest a herd immunity effect.37 Sporadic and outbreak-associated disease caused by ST-11 complex serogroup C emerged during the 1990s.40 Serogroup B disease caused by ST-269 complex has also emerged in Canada, as in the UK and other parts of the world.41 Published data are limited on incidence of meningococcal disease in Latin America.

, 2001) These results suggest that putative ammonia- (or in some

, 2001). These results suggest that putative ammonia- (or in some cases, sulfur- and/or arsenite-) oxidizing chemolithoautotrophs are present on the Mn crust surface. The detection of the phylotypes related to ammonia-oxidizing Archaea and Bacteria in the Mn crust suggests that these putative ammonia oxidizers may play a role as primary producers in the microbial ecosystem on Mn oxides that coats old seamounts in western Pacific. Although the ammonium concentration in the open ocean is generally extremely low (<5 μM) (Rees et al., 2006; Herfort et al., 2007; Agogue et al., 2008), ammonia-oxidizing Archaea belonging to MGI Crenarchaeota can grow under these conditions using ammonium as the energy source (Martens-Habbena

et al., 2009). Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria can also grow at learn more low concentrations

of ammonium (Bollmann & Laanbroek, 2001; Bollmann et al., 2002). In fact, we detected both bacterial and archaeal amoA genes, which encode the alpha subunit of the ammonia monooxygenase, from DNA extracted from the Mn crust (the data will be published elsewhere). Ammonia is the most likely chemical species to be utilized as an electron donor for microbial growth on the Mn crust. Dissolved organic carbon compounds in deep-sea water may resist microbial growth (Barber, PI3K Inhibitor Library mw 1968). Buried organic compounds from surface seawater may be limited on the Mn crust because little sandy sediment is formed (Fig. 1a). Accordingly, H2, CH4, H2S, Fe2+ and Mn2+ from the degradation of organic compounds by anaerobes and fermenters would be limited on the Mn crust. Fe2+ and reduced sulfides contained in basaltic rocks are thought to be energy sources for the microorganisms on the rocks (Bach & Edwards, 2003; Santelli et al., 2008), but the argument is still controversial (Templeton et al., 2009). Our data suggest 6-phosphogluconolactonase that ammonia in surrounding seawater is likely to be an important energy source for sustaining the microbial ecosystem on the Mn crust. Furthermore, the presence of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria on oceanic basaltic rocks has

been supported by the detection of 16S rRNA genes related to these members such as Nitrosospira (Mason et al., 2008; Santelli et al., 2008). These facts lead to the hypothesis that the ammonia oxidizers play a role in the microbial ecosystem on outcrops of the global seafloor including bare young basalts and aged Mn crusts. One of the subjects in the study of oceanic Mn nodules and crusts is the mechanism of their creation and growth. Microorganisms may play a role in the accumulation of Mn oxides by biofilm formation on rocks on the seafloor (Wang & Müller, 2009). This notion is consistent with the detection of abundant microorganisms, both Bacteria and Archaea, within/on the Mn crust (Fig. 2). Mn-oxidizing bacteria, which are thought to play a role in Mn precipitation in the first step of the biomineralization model for Mn crusts as a bioseed (Wang & Müller, 2009), have been isolated from marine environments (Tebo et al., 2005).

Six of 12 serum specimens from systemic lupus erythematosus conta

Six of 12 serum specimens from systemic lupus erythematosus contained both 29/28 and 13.5 kDa proteins and showed characteristic immunofluorescent patterns. The same phenomenon appeared in 3/6 serum samples which contained 29/28 kDa proteins only. Sera from 10 healthy donors did not react with HEp-Sm-D1 or HEp-2 at 1:80 attenuant degrees. No alteration in expression, localization and morphology was observed when HEp-Sm-D1 or HEp-2 interacted with the reference sera which could react with Ro/SSA, La/SSB, β2GP1,

centromere, histone, and Scl-70 antibodies in routine IIF tests. As a new kind of substrate of IIF, HEp-Sm-D1 can be used to detect anti-Sm antibodies. Transfected HEp-2 cells keep the immunofluorescent property of HEp-2 cells in immunofluorescence anti-nuclear antibody (IFANA) test and could potentially be used as substrate for routine IFANA detection. BAY 80-6946 order
“Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is sialotropic. The pathogenesis of sicca manifestations in patients with chronic HCV infection is not fully understood. We aimed to detect

changes in magnetic resonance sialography (MRS) of HCV patients with and without vasculitis. We studied 32 HCV patients (19 female, mean age 48.8 ± 10.3 years) and 20 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Half of the patients had vasculitis. Demographic, clinical and serological data were prospectively evaluated. In patients with vasculitis, the disease activity was assessed by the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS). MRS was performed on all patients and controls. Abnormal MRS was found in 25% of patients, (6/16 and 2/16 in patients with and without Protease Inhibitor Library chemical structure vasculitis, respectively). Among patients with vasculitis, those with abnormal MRS had longer disease duration, higher leukocytic and lymphocytic counts and more frequent cryoglobulinemia (P < 0.01, P < 0.001, P < 0.001 and P < 0.008, respectively), while BVAS scores were not significantly different. Among HCV patients with vasculitis, longer disease

duration GNA12 and cryoglobulinemia were associated with abnormal findings on MRS. To confirm our results, we propose larger-scale, multicentre studies with longer evaluation periods. “
“Aim:  Low back pain (LBP) is the second most frequent reason for seeking medical advice. Various treatments are proposed from no intervention, to analgesics, rest, exercises, local interventions and surgical procedures. Results and outcomes are differently reported. Back School (BS), a combination of patient education and physical exercises, seems to have good results. The aim of this study was to check the effect of BS in factory workers. Patients and Methods:  All (70) workers were interviewed and 26 of them (37.1%) had chronic LBP. Secondary causes were excluded. Anatomy, physiology, biomechanics of the spine, correct postures at work and back exercises were taught. Pain on a visual analog scale (VAS) of 0–100, and Short Form (SF)-36 health survey were applied, before, at the end of BS sessions, and 3 months after BS.

Xylella fastidiosa may use gene-regulatory mechanisms to respond

Xylella fastidiosa may use gene-regulatory mechanisms to respond to changing environments within the xylem of plants, and host range may

in part be determined by differential regulation of virulence genes in different host xylem environments. Epacadostat Host plant resistance has been recognized as the most cost-effective and environmentally safe method for controlling many major microbial pathogens of economic plants. Understanding the underlying biochemical mechanisms of host resistance may lead to the development of resistant varieties or anti-X. fastidiosa chemicals useful in preventing disease in established grapevine. Identification of specific chemical components of citrus xylem fluid that influence the expression of virulence genes in X. fastidiosa

is underway. This work was supported in part by the University of California’s Pierce’s Disease Research Grants Program via a grant from USDA CSREES, the California Department of Food and Agriculture Pierce’s Disease/Glassy-winged Sharpshooter Board, and the University of California Agricultural Experiment Station. “
“The nasST operon encodes the transcriptional regulators of assimilatory nitrate reductase operons in phylogenetically diverse bacteria. NasT is a RNA-binding antiterminator and helps RNA polymerase read through the regulatory terminator sequences upstream of the structural genes. NasS senses nitrate and nitrite and regulates the activity of NasT through stoichiometric interaction. In this study, we analyzed the Pexidartinib in vivo nasST sequence in Azotobacter vinelandii and revealed that the nasS and nasT genes overlap by 19 nucleotides. Our genetic analyses suggested that translational initiation of NasT was coupled with NasS translation, a regulatory mechanism

that prevents overproduction Interleukin-2 receptor of NasT. The significance of tight control of nasT expression was demonstrated in a nasT-overexpression strain, where expression of the assimilatory nitrate reductase operon was deregulated. “
“The transport of organophosphates across the cytoplasma membrane is mediated by organophosphate:phosphate antiporter proteins. In this work, we present the application of a recombinant phosphoenolpyruvate:phosphate antiporter for isotopic labeling experiments in E. coli strains. The antiporters UhpT, UhpT-D388C, and PgtP were investigated regarding transport activity and growth on phosphoenolpyruvate as sole carbon source. The expression of the protein variant UhpT-D388C in a shikimic acid producing E. coli strain was used to show the successful isotopic labeling of shikimic acid from extracellular phosphoenolpyruvate. The results demonstrate the possibility of a direct incorporation of exogenously applicated glycolysis intermediates into E. coli cells for 13C-labeling experiments. “
“We have characterized swarming motility in Rhizobium leguminosarum strains 3841 and VF39SM.

The suspensions were then spun down in an Eppendorf centrifuge, a

The suspensions were then spun down in an Eppendorf centrifuge, and the radioactivity in the supernatant measured in a liquid scintillation counter (Wallac, Model 1409). OptiPhase HiSafe 3 (PerkinElmer) was used as a liquid scintillation cocktail. All chemicals were of analytical grade, and, except where noted otherwise, were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Kft., Budapest, Hungary. All the results presented here are means of 3–5 independent experiments. The data were analysed and visualized by Sigmaplot (Jandel Scientific), and standard deviations (SDs) for each procedure were MI-503 mouse determined.

The SD values were always < 14% of the means. Conidiospores of A. niger were unable to germinate in submerged minimal medium with 1% d-galactose as a sole carbon source even after a prolonged incubation. Essentially similar results were obtained on solid medium. However, mycelia of A. niger pregrown on glycerol (or on any other carbon source tested such as d-glucose, peptone, l-arabinose, d-xylose) and transferred to fresh medium containing d-galactose as a sole carbon source were able to grow, although at a rate lower than other fungi such as A. nidulans (Fekete et al., 2004) or T. reesei (Seiboth et al., 2004) (Fig. 1). The above results suggested that A. niger can JQ1 cell line grow on d-galactose once the spores have germinated but its conidiospores fail to

do so. This suggested to us that transport of d-galactose into buy Cisplatin the conidia may be nonfunctional. To investigate this hypothesis in more detail, we incubated mycelia and conidiospores,

respectively, with 14C-labelled d-galactose, and followed its uptake into the cells. Uptake by mycelia was related to dry weight. As it was practically impossible to determine biomass data for conidiospores in a reproducible way, we could not specify 14C-labelled d-galactose uptake on the same basis in these two sets of experiments. Instead, we employed three different concentrations of conidia, namely 106, 107 and 109 spores mL−1, respectively, under identical experimental conditions. Any d-galactose uptake was therefore expected to be proportional to the number of conidiospores present in the medium. Data obtained indeed showed that the mycelia preformed on glycerol were able to transport d-galactose (Fig. 2a). On the other hand, there was no 14C-labelled d-galactose uptake by the conidiospores irrespective of their concentration (Fig. 2b), indicating the absence of d-galactose transport at this stage of growth in A. niger. The d-galactose-negative phenotype of A. niger was earlier speculated to be the consequence of a lack of galactokinase activity (Elshafei & Abdel-Fatah, 2001). In contrast, cell-free extracts of A. niger mycelia prepared by us were able to phosphorylate d-galactose, resulting in a specific galactokinase activity similar in value to that of A. nidulans (Ilyés et al., 2004).

Patients with a history of neck surgery should be warned of their

Patients with a history of neck surgery should be warned of their potentially limited capacity to acclimatize and should ascend with caution.5,132 The drugs most commonly used to treat or prevent altitude-related illness are acetazolamide,133,134 nifedipine,133–136 and dexamethasone.133,134,137 Salmeterol,133,138 sildenafil,139,140 and tadalafil138 are occasionally used in the treatment and prevention Ibrutinib of HAPE. Patients with preexisting medical conditions or those who are taking other medications may have fewer medication options or elevated risk of experiencing adverse drug reactions. Luks and Swenson provide an excellent review of these issues, the main points

of which are summarized in Table 3.17 Tissot and colleagues found that patients taking warfarin were 2.7 times more likely to have a subtherapeutic international normalized ratio (INR) following ascent to altitude greater than 2,400 m. This risk is doubled in patients with atrial fibrillation. Thus, INR should be monitored closely following altitude travel to facilitate buy AZD8055 early detection and compensation for subtherapeutic INR values. In patients with atrial fibrillation, it would be prudent to measure INR after arrival at altitude if this is practicable.141 Warfarin dosing and monitoring may be hindered by extended periods of remote travel, alterations in eating habits, travel-related illness, and physical exertion. Although it comes with the added inconvenience

of carrying and disposing of injection paraphernalia, low molecular weight Ureohydrolase heparin should be considered in patients where adherence to a warfarin regime is not practical but stable anticoagulation is critical. An additional, albeit expensive, option is a portable INR monitor which a suitably trained patient could use in conjunction with a nomogram for adjusting warfarin doses.121 Cortisol demands will increase in response to the hypobaric hypoxia at altitude. Patients taking glucocorticosteroids should

adjust their dose accordingly. It is recommended that the maintenance dose be doubled at altitudes above 3,000 m and tripled above 4,000 m. Supplemental injectable corticosteroids should also be available for administration in case of unexplained deterioration.142 Medications with a narrow therapeutic index that require toxicity monitoring (eg, lithium and certain anticonvulsant drugs) pose an additional limitation to prolonged remote travel at altitude. Passive ascent to altitude may result in sudden exposure to altitude without adequate time for acclimatization. This rapid change poses an additional physiologic challenge to people with compromised health and affects the safety of some medical devices. Cabin pressure in commercial aircraft is regulated at barometric pressures equivalent to altitudes between 1,500 and 2,500 m. In patients with reduced partial pressure of arterial oxygen at sea level, blood oxygen saturation can fall drastically at normal cabin pressures.

The absence of metabolically favorable carbon sources in the chit

The absence of metabolically favorable carbon sources in the chitin-containing media could trigger

the negative regulation of the gpdh1 gene to the detriment of the positive regulation of genes encoding the enzymes required for the use of metabolically less favorable carbon sources. The complexity of the exoskeleton that was added to the culture medium is difficult to determine. This could explain the positive regulation of the GAPDH gene in the exoskeleton-containing media, in addition to the possible host-adhesion role of GAPDH (Dutra et al., 2004; Mogensen et al., 2006). Immunofluorescence microscopy was performed to elucidate CT99021 order the subcellular protein localization. Conidia, appressoria, mycelia, blastospores and germinated blastospores were analyzed and both cytosolic and surface forms of the GAPDH protein were observed in vesicular-like structures, as reported before (Rodrigues et al., 2007, 2008; De Jesus et al., 2009). Cell-surface GAPDH localization was corroborated by Triton X-100 surface removal of the protein and the measurement of specific GAPDH activity. Surface GAPDH was also quantified by fluorescence using

a polyclonal antibody. Both methods corroborated the presence of GAPDH on the cell surface. This ‘unexpected’ localization of cytosolic enzymes is increasingly being recognized in

both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells (Barbosa et al., 2006; Egea et al., 2007). The presence of GAPDH on the external cell surface of M. anisopliae Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Library raises some questions, such as how incorporation into the cell wall occurs in the absence of a conventional N-terminal signal sequence that is responsible for targeting the protein in the secretory pathway. The vesicular-like structures presented by GAPDH would lead us to hypothesize that there is a vesicle-secretion pathway across the cell wall (Rodrigues et al., Metformin supplier 2007); however, more studies will be needed to verify this possibility. The blastospore pole migration pattern evidenced after a 64-h cultivation and the almost complete GAPDH migration to the poles of germinated blastospore are remarkable events in GAPDH localization in M. anisopliae cells. One simple explanation for this recruitment is the increased metabolic activity in these regions of the germinating cells. On the other hand, the surface localization at the blastospore pole could have another function: inhibition of the host immune system through a molecular mimicry mechanism, because the fungal and host GAPDH share high identity, leading to a lack of recognition of the pathogen by the host immune system (Goudot-Crozel et al., 1989; Terao et al., 2006). The possible involvement of M.

In practice, however, the number of clusters is underestimated, a

In practice, however, the number of clusters is underestimated, as the dimension is increased beyond a certain value. The difficulty arising from the high-dimensionality

of the data space is called ‘the curse of dimensionality’ (Bishop, 2006) and it should be BYL719 supplier mitigated by eliminating redundant data information. In this study, we reduced the dimension of the feature space by either extracting the principal components or selecting the coefficients of WT of spike waveforms. In the PCA, the raw data were first filtered by a 300th order 200 Hz high-pass finite impulse response filter with Hamming window function. The high order of filtering effectively eliminated the DC component from the filtered signals, which becomes a potential obstacle in spike clustering, at a relatively small cost of computations. The filtered data were resampled at 20 kHz, from –0.5 ms ahead to 1.05 ms behind each detected peak time (equivalently, sampling points in the interval [−10 : 21]), such that point 0 may coincide with the peak mTOR inhibitor time. Thus, 128-dimensional (four electrodes of 32 points) data were available for each spike. We then extracted 12 principal components from these 128-dimensional data by using PCA. The PCA, however, is not necessarily useful for clustering, as PCA merely extracts the dimension

exhibiting a large variance in data distribution, whereas clustering is most effectively executed in the dimensions in which the data distribution exhibits multiple sharp peaks rather than a single broad peak. Therefore, another spike-sorting algorithm employed WT for extracting the characteristic features of spike waveforms. The raw unfiltered data were resampled at 20 kHz, from −0.5 ms ahead to 1.05 ms behind each detected peak time (equivalently, sampling points in these the interval [−10 : 21]), such that point 0 may coincide with the peak time. Note that WT requires no preparatory filtering that depends on an empirical choice of cut-off frequency. We then applied the multi-resolution analysis to the spike waveform (Halata et al., 2000; Quiroga et al.,

2004) obtained from each channel and derived its time–frequency coefficients. We used Harr’s wavelet (Harr, 1910; Mallat, 1998) and the Cohen-Daubechies-Feauveau 9/7 (CDF97) wavelet (Cohen et al., 1992; Daubechies, 1992). After the multi-resolution analysis, we obtained a one-dimensional distribution of each coefficient over the ensemble of spikes recorded with each channel. A feature is only useful for separating units if it has a multi-modal distribution, i.e. a distribution with more than one peak. We reduced the dimensionality of the data by selecting the wavelet coefficients with multi-modal distributions. We evaluated each coefficient by applying the RVB clustering algorithm to the distribution of that coefficient.