He was prescribed indomethacin orally 25 mg tid and had a part

He was prescribed indomethacin orally 25 mg t.i.d. and had a partial response. After a week, he was given a dosage of

50 mg t.i.d. with complete remission of the pain. Brain magnetic resonance imaging was normal, while an magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine showed a non-homogeneous mass behind the odontoid process of C2, narrowing the subarachnoid MI-503 order space in C1, stretching the posterior longitudinal ligament, and touching the left vertebral artery. A computed tomography scan showed calcification of the soft tissue around the odontoid process and a thickening of the left C2 root. After 4 months, the indomethacin dosage was reduced step-by-step. Indomethacin was discontinued in March 2012.

Since then, the headache has not recurred. We here present the case of a patient with headache and radiological findings of crowned dens. However, the clinical presentation differed from previous CDS cases in the selleck kinase inhibitor literature in that the pain was unilateral with frontal localization and throbbing quality, as well as an orthostatic component and lack of either fever or inflammatory signs. The differential diagnosis also includes a remitting form of hemicrania continua, presenting with an atypical presentation, with neuroimaging incidental finding of CDS. This case widens the spectrum of the clinical presentation of crowned dens, a condition that should be kept in mind in cases of unilateral headache in older patients. “
“To determine the impact of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on headache characteristics and headache prognosis in U.S. soldiers

with post-traumatic headache. PTSD and post-concussive headache are common conditions among U.S. Army personnel returning from deployment. The impact of comorbid PTSD on the characteristics and outcomes of post-traumatic headache has not been determined in U.S. Army soldiers. A retrospective cohort study was conducted among 270 consecutive U.S. Army soldiers diagnosed with post-traumatic headache at a single Army neurology clinic. All subjects were screened for PTSD at baseline using the PTSD symptom checklist. Headache frequency medchemexpress and characteristics were determined for post-traumatic headache subjects with and without PTSD at baseline. Headache measures were reassessed 3 months after the baseline visit, and were compared between groups with and without PTSD. Of 270 soldiers with post-traumatic headache, 105 (39%) met screening criteria for PTSD. There was no significant difference between subjects with PTSD and those without PTSD with regard to headache frequency (17.2 vs 15.7 headache days per month; P = .15) or chronic daily headache (58.1% vs 52.1%; P = .34). Comorbid PTSD was associated with higher headache-related disability as measured by the Migraine Disability Assessment Score.

If this results in a typical image, HCC is diagnosed If this is

If this results in a typical image, HCC is diagnosed. If this is also inconclusive, biopsy is needed. This approach has been validated by a number of studies. The main limitation

is that 30–40% of HCC is missed on fine needle biopsy [32]. Repeated biopsies are often necessary. Other problems of biopsy include the risk of needle track seeding (2.7% Selleckchem Fulvestrant in a recent meta-analysis [33]) and the difficulty to differentiate HCC from high-grade dysplastic nodules on small biopsy samples. In persons with haemophilia, the risk of bleeding and requirement of coagulation factor concentrates need to be considered [34]. The most widely used staging system for HCC is the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging scheme (Table 1) [35]. Recommendation.  We follow the AASLD recommendations for diagnosis. The diagnostic work-up and indications for biopsy are not different from those in patients without haemophilia. Removal of the tumour(s), prior to spreading outside the liver is the only option for cure. This can be achieved by surgical resection, local ablation or liver transplantation. The first two can only be considered in selected cases with one or two nodules and relative adequate function of the cirrhotic liver. Impaired liver

function and regenerative capacity in combination with the precancerous condition of the liver make the outcome less than optimal. Liver transplantation is in itself the best option as it both cures the cirrhosis and removes both malignant and premalignant lesions. However, patient characteristics, donor shortage and (potential) tumour spread outside the liver EPZ-6438 in vivo may preclude this option. If local ablation or resection are not feasible, most liver transplant centres only accept patients for liver transplantation if the tumour load is not outside the so-called Milan

criteria: one solitary HCC lesion ≤5 cm or maximum three lesions ≤3 cm, no gross vascular invasion and no regional node or distant metastases [36]. The different treatment modalities are discussed in more detail below. Only a small minority of patients with HCC in the setting of HCV infection are good candidates for resection, because most will have cirrhosis and liver dysfunction. Patients with cirrhosis but still well-preserved liver function medchemexpress can be eligible, if their bilirubin and portal blood pressure are normal. In that case, 5-year survival can exceed 70%, while in less rigorously selected patients, 5-year survival is about 50% [37]. Recurrence of HCC, either a true recurrence of the same tumour or de novo HCC, is eventually seen in up to 70% of patients who undergo resection. Adjuvant therapy, either before or after surgery, does not reduce this rate [38]. Data on the treatment of recurrence are scarce, although liver transplantation might be an option in some patients. Evidence in haemophilia.

However, there is a lack of evidence-based recommendations for th

However, there is a lack of evidence-based recommendations for the use of prophylaxis in adults. “
“von Willebrand disease

(VWD) is the most common inherited bleeding disorder and is due to a deficiency and/or abnormality of von Willebrand factor (VWF), the high-molecular-weight glycoprotein that plays a major role in the early phases of hemostasis. VWD is inherited by autosomal dominant or recessive pattern, but women with milder VWD forms are apparently more selleck chemicals symptomatic. VWD is also very heterogeneous disorder and therefore patients with mild VWD forms are sometimes under- and misdiagnosed, due to physiologic changes of VWF within the same individual and to the relative high variability of diagnostic tests. Three main criteria are required for correct diagnoses of VWD: (1) positive bleeding history since childhood; (2) reduced

Crizotinib in vitro VWF activity in plasma; and (3) history of bleeding in the family. The bleeding score (BS) calculated following a detailed questionnaire devised to quantify symptoms was useful to confirm the diagnosis of VWD1. BS together with baseline VWF levels and family history have been proposed as more evidence-based criteria for VWD1. More recently, the use of BS and threshold levels of VWF activity have been investigated in a prospective study to predict clinical outcome and the need of therapy with desmopressin and/or VWF concentrates in a large cohort of patients with different VWD types. “
“Summary.  MCE MC710, a combined product of plasma-derived activated factor VII (FVIIa) and factor X (FX) at a

protein weight ratio of 1:10, is a novel bypassing agent for haemostasis in haemophilia patients with inhibitors. In this study, pharmacokinetic (PK), pharmacodynamic (PD) parameters and safety of single doses of MC710 were investigated in 11 male haemophilia patients with inhibitors in a non-bleeding state. This was a multi-centre, open-labelled, non-randomized, active controlled crossover, dose-escalation study of five doses (20–120 μg kg−1 of FVIIa) with re-administration of different MC710 dosages to the same subjects. The active controls were NovoSeven (120 μg kg−1) and/or FEIBA (50 and 75 U kg−1) which were used to compare PD parameters. The area under the curve (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of MC710 active ingredients increased dose-dependently within the range of 20 and 120 μg kg−1. After administration of MC710, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) was dose-dependently improved and prothrombin time (PT) was shortened to approximately 6 s at 10 min, and APTT improvement and PT shortening effects were maintained until 12 h after administration of MC710 at all doses.

73 ± 336) (P < 001) The prevalence of headache according to re

73 ± 3.36) (P < .001). The prevalence of headache according to region was 30.7% among students in urban, 31.2% in suburban, and 21.6% in rural areas. The prevalence of headache according to age was 20.8% among students ∼6-12 years, 32.0% ∼13-15 years, and 38.2% ∼16-18 years. The prevalence according to headache types was 8.7% (boys 7.0%, girls 10.3%) in migraine, 13.7% (boys 10.7%, girls 16.3%) in TTH, and 6.7% in others. The mean frequency, severity of headache, and duration of symptoms were significantly higher in girls than in boys (P < .001). Conclusions.— Recurrent primary headaches

are quite prevalent among school-aged children and adolescents in South Korea, and the prevalence rates are similar to those reported elsewhere. TTH was more common than migraine. http://www.selleckchem.com/products/ferrostatin-1-fer-1.html The prevalence of migraine headache increased with age. The prevalence rate of headache in students in urban and suburban areas was significantly higher than the rate of students in rural areas. “
“(Headache 2011;51:1132-1139) The objective MK-2206 clinical trial of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness of spinal manipulations as a treatment option for cervicogenic headaches. Seven databases were searched from their inception to February 2011. All randomized

trials which investigated spinal manipulations performed by any type of healthcare professional for treating cervicogenic headaches in human subjects were considered. The selection of studies, data extraction, and validation were performed independently by 2 reviewers. Nine randomized clinical trials (RCTs) met the inclusion criteria. Their methodological quality was mostly poor. Six RCTs suggested that spinal manipulation is more effective than physical therapy, gentle massage, drug therapy, or no intervention. Three RCTs showed no differences in pain, duration,

and frequency of headaches compared to placebo, manipulation, physical therapy, massage, or wait list controls. Adequate control for placebo effect was achieved in 1 RCT only, and this trial showed no benefit of spinal manipulations beyond a placebo effect. The majority of RCTs failed to provide details of adverse effects. There are few rigorous RCTs testing the effectiveness of spinal manipulations for treating cervicogenic headaches. The results are mixed and the only trial accounting for placebo MCE effects fails to be positive. Therefore, the therapeutic value of this approach remains uncertain. “
“Medication overuse headache (MOH) affects between 1% and 2% of the general population but is present in up to 50% of patients seen in headache centers. There are currently no internationally accepted guidelines for treatment of MOH. A review of the current literature on MOH treatment and pathophysiology. We conclude that headache frequency can be reduced to episodic headache in more than 50% of the patients by simple detoxification and information. Approximately half the patients will not have need for prophylactic medication after withdrawal.

These studies required

These studies required Selleck Luminespib infusion of ∼1.5 × 108 donor cells into DPPIV− rats without PH at 3 months after TAA administration. At 4 months after cell transplantation, 23.8 ± 4.4% liver repopulation was achieved and G6Pase-expressing, differentiated cells were integrated in the cirrhotic liver environment. Compared to nontransplanted TAA-treated livers, analysis of mRNA showed that FLSPC transplantation

up-regulated genes related to specific hepatocytic functions (G6P, 3.7-fold; CYP3A1, 3.5-fold; TAT, 1.8-fold; n = 3/3) (Supporting Figure 1). The above findings suggested that a significant number of FLSPCs can engraft in the cirrhotic liver and substantial repopulation can be achieved in the absence of PH. FLSPC transplantation under these conditions is well tolerated and we observed a mortality of 11%. We next studied the dynamics of donor cell engraftment

and expansion immediately after FLSPC infusion. Since DPPIV is not expressed before ED18, ED15 FLSPCs were isolated from EGFP-marked transgenic F344 rats to identify engrafted cells. We infused ∼1.5 × 108 EGFP-expressing fetal liver cells into three DPPIV− rats at 3 months after TAA administration without PH. At days 1 and 3 after cell infusion, single EGFP+ cells Apoptosis Compound Library high throughput (Fig. 6A) and small groups of EGFP+ cells (Fig. 6B) were detected in the host liver parenchyma, respectively, demonstrating successful engraftment of transplanted stem/progenitor cells into the cirrhotic liver. By day 7, expanding fetal liver cells formed small cell clusters primarily along the border of fibrotic bands (Fig. 6C), demonstrating ongoing repopulation in the cirrhotic liver MCE tissue environment. Having demonstrated that transplanted fetal hepatic cells can engraft and significantly repopulate the recipient liver with advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis, we next determined whether stem/progenitor

cells can effect fibrogenesis and the extent of liver fibrosis. After inducing advanced fibrosis in DPPIV− rats (200 mg/kg TAA, twice weekly for 3 months), we infused ∼1.8 × 108 unfractionated ED15 fetal liver cells into TAA-treated rats that had not undergone PH (n = 6). Two months later, TAA administration was discontinued and rats were sacrificed 5 weeks later. Other rats received identical TAA-treatment without cell transplantation (n = 6). Repopulation analysis of the cell transplant recipients showed that 26.9 ± 6.3% of the liver mass was repopulated by FLSPC-derived hepatocytes that expressed albumin at the same level as observed in adjacent host liver tissue (Fig. 7A,B). Selective expression of glutamine synthetase in the centrilobular regions of engrafted liver tissue suggested complete zonal differentiation by repopulating FLSPC-derived hepatocytes (Fig. 7B, lower panels). Double label immunohistochemistry for CD26 and CK-19/EpCAM demonstrated that transplanted stem/progenitor cells also differentiated into bile duct cells (Fig. 7C).

[12, 13, 22, 28, 29] Moreover, the distribution of fibrosis is re

[12, 13, 22, 28, 29] Moreover, the distribution of fibrosis is reported to be patchy in CHC and small-needle biopsies may not reliably estimate the extent of the overall fibrosis, which may also explain the finding of regression in a few of our patients.[12, 13, 27-29] It is well recognized that the staging system often demonstrates a nonlinear progression of fibrosis.[12, 13] see more Prospective randomized controlled studies in untreated children to address the adequacy and heterogeneity in biopsy sizes are challenging because of the

decreasing number of HCV-infected patients, the benign clinical course during the first two decades of life, and the risks involved in liver biopsy. This clearly highlights the need for noninvasive markers of fibrosis,

which should be specifically validated for use in infants and children. Until they are available, liver biopsy will remain the gold standard for assessment of disease severity.[12, 13, 28] In this era of expanding treatment options for children and adolescents with CHC, the role of an initial or repeat liver biopsy for treatment decisions needs to be examined. In the past, many treatment trials mandated a liver biopsy; this approach is now being questioned since children tolerate treatment well and the outcome of treatment is excellent, especially in nongenotype 1 patients.[8-11] The current North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology U0126 cell line and Nutrition (NASPGHAN) guidelines for management of pediatric patients with chronic HCV recommend a liver biopsy if the result influences medical decision-making, such as initiation of treatment in genotype 1, or in the event of sudden hepatic decompensation in a previously stable patient.[21] These guidelines have been supported by other investigators who advocate a liver biopsy in the presence of autoimmune markers, obesity, or suspected cirrhosis, and recognize that markers such as ALT or viral load

may not be predictive of severity or treatment outcomes.[8, MCE公司 9, 30] It may be argued that treatment of a slowly progressing disease in an asymptomatic child may be deferred given the side effects and limitations of the currently available therapy. On the other hand, some might favor early treatment of a population with very little comorbidity, facing many decades with the potential unpredictability of the course of CHC liver disease.[8-11] A liver biopsy finding is one of the critical factors which may influence decisions regarding therapy.[21, 31] Based on the data from this retrospective study, we conclude that, in the absence of specific noninvasive predictive tools and more robust mathematical models of fibrosis estimation, a follow-up biopsy after more than 5 years may be justified to evaluate CHC liver disease severity and progression for treatment decisions, particularly in genotype 1 patients. “
“Aim:  Recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after liver transplantation decreases patient survival.

Liraglutide significantly decreased circulating

NEFA in t

Liraglutide significantly decreased circulating

NEFA in the fasting state, low-dose and high-dose insulin states. Liraglutide significantly reduced the insulin concentration required to V2-maximally suppress circulating NEFA. Liraglutide KU-57788 mw significantly decreased adipose tissue lipolysis, as demonstrated by a reduction in interstitial fluid glycerol concentrations. Furthermore, Liraglutide significantly improved serum markers of adipose inflammation, namely leptin, adiponectin, and CCL-2. In addition, Liraglutide decreased de novo lipogenesis in-vivo, as measured by incorporation of deuterated 2H20 into palmitate, versus placebo. Endorsing our clinical observations, in-vitro experiments using both the Huh-7 human hepatoma cell line and primary cultures of human hepatocytes showed decreased de novo lipogenesis, measured by 14C-acetate incorporation into cellular lipid following treatment with GLP-1 (exendin-4 10nM, 100nM). Conclusions: Liraglutide significantly

learn more reduces metabolic dysfunction, hepatic lipogenesis, hepatic/adipose insulin resistance and adipose inflammation in patients with NASH. It is possible that GLP-1 analogue therapy may represent a novel treatment for patients with NASH, although the safety and histological efficacy await the completion of the 48week LEAN trial. Disclosures: Matthew J. Armstrong – Grant/Research Support: Novo Nordisk Ltd Stephen Gough – Advisory Committees or Review Panels: Novo Nordisk, Eli Lilly, Sanofi Aventis, Takeda, GSK; Grant/Research Support: Novo Nordisk, Eli Lilly, Takeda; Speaking and Teaching: Novo Nordisk, Eli Lilly, Sanofi Aventis, GSK Philip N. Newsome – Grant/Research Support: Novo Nordisk The following people have nothing to disclose: Diana Hull, Kathy Guo, Darren Barton, Jonathan M. Hazlehurst, Maryam Nasiri, Laura L. Gathercole, Jinglei Yu, Piers

Gaunt, Jeremy W. Tomlinson Background&Aims: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and cholelithiasis are among the most frequent diseases of gastrointestinal diseases. Recently, it was reported that cholelithiasis is approximately two times more often (20%) than normal in patients with NAFLD. However, to date no study showed a casual relationship and gallbladder kinetics in patients with NAFLD. In this study we aimed to evaluate the gallbladder kinetics and probable 上海皓元 relationship with NAFLD. Material and Methods: A total of 50 patients diagnosed histopathologically with NAFLD and 38 healthy controls were included in the study. After an 8 hour overnight fasting the measurements of gallbladder were performed and after standard food ingestion the measurements were repeated at 45. minutes. Results: Fasting gallbladder wall thickness (1.12±0.38 and 1.48±0.46 mm respectively, p<0.001), volume (21.73±11.1 and 27.86±8.4 ml respectively, p=0.006) and postprandial residual volume (10.73±5.7 and 1 7.84±8.1 8 respectively, p<0.001)of patients with NAFLD was significantly higher than controls, whereas gallbladder ejection fraction (48±19.15 and 36.8±19.

Next, this prosthesis was removed and an additional bilateral pos

Next, this prosthesis was removed and an additional bilateral posterior record was performed with regular polyether material (Impregum Soft) by means of occlusion rims and an acrylic resin template. During this step, the anterior acrylic record preserved the OVD. These records transferred the correct maxillomandibular relationship to the semiadjustable

articulator (Fig 7). After that, the copings of the maxillary anterior teeth were cast with cobalt-chromium alloy. The lingual surfaces of the maxillary right and left canines were flattened to guide the insertion/removal path of the RPD, while the flat lingual surfaces of the maxillary right and left lateral incisors were planned to serve as additional guide planes and to act as indirect retainers if the maxillary second molars are GDC 973 lost. Two-part (patrix-matrix) rigid extracoronal precision attachments (Artfix; Odontofix Ind. Com. de Material Odontológico Ltda. EPP, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil) with a vertical freedom of movement and an activation portion were cast on the distal surface of the maxillary right and left canines. The patrix portions were positioned

during the fabrication of the crown wax patterns using a dental surveyor. The casting procedures were executed normally to obtain a rigid connection between the FPD and the patrix portion. Additional care was taken during the finishing and sandblasting procedures of the casted FPD to avoid abrasive wear of the attachment. click here As the matrix portion need not be welded to the RPD framework, it was picked up from the patrix portion using acrylic resin. This procedure facilitates long-term repair and/or attachment activation or replacement. The metal copings were clinically examined and each segment was bonded (Fig

8) with acrylic resin (Duralay) to avoid welding distortion and marginal gap. After the welding procedures, a coping impression was MCE taken, and the remount cast was positioned on the semiadjustable articulator. For this purpose, the interim RPD was maintained in position determining the suitable OVD and a maxillomandibular acrylic record was made on the monoblock framework. Next, the interim RPD was removed and the OVD was recorded using occlusion rims and an acrylic resin template (Fig 9). An adequate interocclusal distance allowed ceramic application. The unglazed ceramic was clinically tried and returned to the definitive cast. The dental surveyor was again used to check the previously established insertion/removal path of the RPD (Fig 10). The FPD/cast assembly was duplicated with reversible hydrocolloid, and a refractory cast was produced. The RPD framework was cast in a cobalt-chromium alloy and clinically tried to check seating (Fig 11). The artificial teeth were selected and positioned using the interim prostheses as form and color reference.

A description of the products and the application dosage and freq

A description of the products and the application dosage and frequency is given in Table 1. Each year, an untreated control was added to the experimental design. A sample of 100 leaves was taken from the five plots of each treatment (20 leaves/replication). Each leaf was collected from a different plant. This sampling selleck chemical was repeated twice during the cropping period; in year 1, the samplings were

made 61 and 67 days after planting, and in year 2, the samplings were collected 68 and 75 days after planting. For each sample, we counted the number of apterae adults of the four most abundant potato colonizing species in Switzerland: Myzus persicae (Sulzer), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), Aulacorthum solani (Kaltenbach) and Aphis nasturtii (Kaltenbach) (Derron and Goy 1995). In addition, two tubers were manually collected from each plant 4 weeks after haulm killing and tested by ELISA (Gugerli and Gehriger 1980)]. We used monoclonal antibodies specific to serotype N (Bioreba, Reinach, Switzerland). Selleckchem BAY 73-4506 The two-year results

were analysed using Statistica® (Statsofts, Tulsa, OK, USA). For each leaf sampling, we examined the average aphid count (two replications). The analysis was carried out for the different aphid species separately. The number of aphids was converted using the square root transformation method (Dagnelie 1975). For each plot, we examined the percentage of PVY-infected tubers at harvest (five replications). The percentage of tuber infection was converted using the angular data transformation method (Dagnelie

1975). For both aphids and PVY analysis, we ran a two-factor (year and treatment) analysis of variance (anova) with an α error level of 0.05 (Gomez and Gomez 1984). A treatment was considered effective in controlling aphid populations or PVY if the following three conditions were met. First, the results of the anova showed statistically significant differences at the 5% level. Second, the treatment and the control belonged to different homogeneity medchemexpress groups, according to the Newman–Keuls post hoc analysis test (Dagnelie 1975). Third, the treatment had a positive value of efficacy. Treatment efficacy is given by the following formula: . The efficacy varies from 0% to 100%, 0% signifying that the treatment had no effect and 100% that it was fully effective. A negative efficacy can be obtained when the result of the treatment is higher than the result of the control. The effect of the treatment strategies could not be assessed on A. solani, because the number of captures was too low to detect any differences among treatments (F(3;6) = 1.57; P > 0.05, Fig. 1). The oil and the elicitor were not effective in controlling A. nasturtii populations, and a high variability was observed in plots treated with oil (from 9 to 61 insects sampled on 100 leaves). The insecticide was effective in controlling A.

We therefore created a retroviral transduction system to stably o

We therefore created a retroviral transduction system to stably overexpress AQP-1 in vitro (pMMP-AQP1). IF (Fig. 3A) and western blotting (Fig. 3B) demonstrated robust overexpression of AQP-1 after treatment with pMMP-AQP1 compared with pMMP-LacZ controls, providing a mechanistic

in vitro model in which to study the biological effects of AQP-1. Based on our a priori hypothesis that AQP-1 promotes angiogenesis, we speculated that AQP-1 up-regulation would increase LEC motility. We therefore tested the effects of AQP-1 overexpression on LEC chemotaxis using modified Boyden chamber chemotaxis assays. However, contrary to our initial hypothesis, we found that after AQP-1 overexpression with pMMP-AQP1, traditional chemotaxis in LEC was actually reduced compared with LacZ controls, INCB024360 research buy both in the basal state and in response to FGF (Fig. 4A). Similar results were PD-0332991 nmr observed using human hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells, various chemotactic

agents, and both adenoviral and retroviral overexpression (Supporting Fig. 2A). Using AQP-1-specific siRNA or scrambled siRNA, we found, again, that AQP-1 expression was inversely correlated with HSEC chemotaxis in primary cells (Supporting Fig. 2B). Attempts to modulate AQP-1 function with chemical inhibitors, such as mercuric chloride, resulted in endothelial cell toxicity MCE公司 and therefore were not pursued in greater depth (Supporting Fig. 3). Recent studies have revealed that, in the context of desmoplasia, cells frequently modify their migration pattern from a traditional, actin-based, mesenchymal mechanism, to a membrane deformation mechanism that has been referred to as ameboid motility.36 This invasive form of motility, although slower, is nonetheless, more adaptable in circumstances requiring cell shape deformation and dynamic membrane blebbing events to squeeze through confined areas. We hypothesized that the dense fibrotic ECM of the cirrhotic microenvironment requires invasion

and that LECs undergo mode-switching to a more primitive form of amoeboid motility in this setting. We therefore tested the effects of AQP-1 overexpression on FGF-induced endothelial cell invasion capacity using three-dimensional collagen invasion assays. In striking contrast to our chemotaxis results, we observed that AQP-1 overexpression in TSEC significantly increased both basal and FGF-induced invasion (Fig. 4B), suggesting that bleb-based amoeboid motility occurs in this setting. Because dynamic membrane blebbing is the hallmark of amoeboid motility,15 we used phase-contrast, time-lapse video microscopy to examine blebbing behavior in TSEC. We hypothesized that altered blebbing dynamics may contribute to amoeboid motility and explain the increased invasion capacity conferred by AQP-1. Phase contrast and SEM (Fig.