8 �� 10? 5 N?s/m?2 is the equivalent spherical radius which can

8 �� 10? 5 N?s/m?2. is the equivalent spherical radius which can be calculated by R��=3R12L43. The radial displacement w of the shell is given by:w=FexKQe��xcos2��cos��t(2)where Fex is the amplitude of the exciti
There is a common interest on mapping and studying the bed constitution of natural water bodies, artificial harbours, or inland waterways for water management issues or navigability of shipping pathways, especially at the presence of a mud layer rich in fine-grained sediments. In the past, this non-consolidated, near-bottom mud layer was only assigned to few locations in channels, harbours and bays, but it is also a ubiquitous phenomenon in any natural water body [1]. It is present in any natural water body with sufficient supply of fine-grained sediment and periods of low flow velocity such as lakes and estuaries.

Acoustic techniques are extensively used in hydrographic surveys for lakebed mapping as they provide relatively rapid coverage of large lakebed areas compared to direct sampling methods [2,3]. But the inherent problem at the presence of a mud layer is the acoustic delineation and mapping of the lakebed surface. The mud density is slightly higher than that of water and increases gradually with depth [4], hence the impedance contrast offered to an acoustic wave by the water-mud-lakebed interface is less significant than by a water-lakebed interface. To overcome these difficulties of lakebed mapping McAnally et al. [4] emphasized the research need for improving or combining existing measurement techniques.

To support acoustic techniques for mud layer and lakebed mapping complementary methodologies Entinostat with a soil physical approach are recommendable and have already been applied [1,3,4]. However, these methods require intensive sampling effort. So far there is no common standardized method that delineates water, mud and consolidated lakebed sediments at the presence of a distinctive transition zone from water to lakebed. Many studies reported the development of sensors that combine cone penetrometer with water content measurement systems such as time domain reflectrometry (TDR) or time domain transmissometry (TRT) [5�C7]. All these presented probes and methods were developed for agricultural or mountainous forested soils [6,7], but not for surveying the challenging environment of a lake.

Therefore some inadequacies of these probes for the intended application were their standardization, lack of ruggedness, accuracy of penetration resistance PR measurement and obviously the very small maximal measurable depth of 40 to 60 cm.Thus, the purpose of the study was the adaptation of commonly used and well-known soil physical measurement techniques for the in situ delineation of mud and shallow lakebed-sediment layers within a hydrographic survey.

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