Influx of both NK and CD8+ T-cells into the BAL of PVM-infected m

Influx of both NK and CD8+ T-cells into the BAL of PVM-infected mice was markedly delayed compared to that in mice infected with influenza or hRSV (Fig. 1 and Fig. 2).

However, from d. 10 p.i. onwards, extremely high numbers of CD8+ T-cells were present in the airways of PVM-infected mice, selleck compound coinciding with disease. The relatively late immune activation seen in the PVM-infected mice was not explained by the quantities of administered viral particles, as both sublethal and lethal doses of PVM failed to induce an early NK cell influx in the infected respiratory tissue (Fig. 1), whereas both high dose HKx31 and low dose PR8 (representing comparable ID50s) caused an early NK cell influx, well detectable at d. 2 p.i. If not

the quantities of administered particles, differing replication kinetics may explain the differences in kinetics of immune activation between PVM and influenza infection, although it should be noted that PVM rapidly replicates during the Rigosertib molecular weight first days of infection, reaching titers of approximately 105 particles/lung at d. 2 p.i. (Fig. 1). Alternatively, the relatively late influx of lymphocytes into the airways of PVM-infected mice is consistent also with recent observations that the nonstructural proteins of PVM (NS1 and NS2) inhibit type I and type III interferon responses [27] and [28]. In these studies, inflammation in the airways of PVM-infected mice was found to be still limited at d. 3 p.i., while at d. 6 p.i., high levels of chemokines and cytokines such as MCP-1, RANTES, MIP-1α and IL-15 were produced [27] and [28]. These chemokines are likely to attract NK cells to the airways, as well as CD8+ T-cells [31]. The finding that CD8+ T-cells PD184352 (CI-1040) cause pathology in the PVM-mouse model [31] has raised questions about the use of a vaccine designed to stimulate a pneumovirus-specific CD8+ T-cell response. However, we show

that mice immunized with BM-DCs pulsed with PVM P261–269 displayed a Th1-skewed immune response and reduced viral loads following challenge (Fig. 3 and Fig. 4), suggesting that vaccine-induced CD8+ T-cell memory protects against pneumovirus-induced disease. In an earlier study [41], immunization with PVM P261–269 in IFA was unsuccessful in protecting mice against PVM-infection unless co-administered with a PVM-derived CD4 T-cell epitope. Interestingly, the peptide/IFA immunization protocol used in that study resulted in mixed Th1/Th2 responses to the included CD4 T-cell epitope, in contrast to the Th1 responses observed in PVM-challenged DCp-immunized mice (Fig. 3). Thus, immunization-induced PVM-specific memory CD8+ T-cells protect against PVM-associated disease, but the degree of protection and effects of immunization on CD4 T-cell differentiation depend on the strategy for epitope delivery and used adjuvant.

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