Instruction was given to do air sealed dressing over the stoma, a

Instruction was given to do air sealed dressing over the stoma, allowing healing by secondary intension. Patient and attendant were educated that if the patient develops respiratory

distress he should be brought to the hospital immediately. First follow up was done after two weeks. When no complication was observed at home, then monthly check up for one year depending upon the condition of the patient. Statistical analysis The statistical analysis was performed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 15.0 for Windows (SPSS, Chicago IL, USA). The mean ± standard deviation (SD), median and ranges were calculated for continuous variables whereas proportions and frequency tables were used to summarize categorical Selleck MLN2238 variables. Continuous variables were categorized. Chi-square (χ2) test were used to test for the significance of association between the independent (predictor) and dependent

(outcome) variables in the categorical variables. The level of significance was considered as P < 0.05. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine predictor variables that predict the outcome. Ethical consideration Ethical approval to conduct the study was sought from the Weill-Bugando University College of Health Sciences/Bugando Medical Centre joint institutional ethic review committee before the commencement of the study. Results Demographic profile Two hundred and selleck products fourteen patients had tracheostomy within the study period. Lepirudin One hundred and sixty-two (75.7%) patients were males and females were fifty-two (24.3%) with a male to female ratio of 3.1: 1. Their ages ranged from 1 year to 76 years with the median and mean

age of 36 and 38.34 ± 12.26 years respectively. The majority of patients were in the 3rd decade of life (36.7%). Timing, purpose and indications of tracheostomy One hundred and seventy-two tracheotomies (80.4%) were performed as an emergency while forty-two (19.6%) as elective procedures. Of the 214 tracheostomized patients, 184 (86.0%) had temporary tracheostomy and the remaining 30(14.0%) had permanent tracheostomy as part of their treatment. The most common indication for tracheostomy was upper airway obstruction secondary to traumatic causes in 55.1% of patients, followed by upper airway obstruction due to neoplastic causes in 39.3% of cases (Table 1). High incidence of traumatic causes of upper airway obstruction was found between the third and fourth decades of life, while the 7-8th decades of life recorded high incidence of laryngeal and other head and neck malignancies. Laryngeal papillomas causing upper airway obstruction were recorded as the most common indication for tracheostomy in the first decade of life. Table 1 Indications for Tracheostomy Indications Pathological causes Frequency Percentages Upper airway obstruction   178 83.2   Traumatic 98 55.1      - Severe head NVP-BGJ398 injuries 69 70.4      - Foreign body aspiration 13 13.3      - Severe maxillofacial injuries 9 9.2      - Cut throat 7 7.

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