jop.physiotherapy.asn.au. We are grateful to Jan Mehrholz and Raymond Tong for providing information and/or data. “
“More than 100 million people in Asia were living with diabetes mellitus in 2007 (Chan et al 2009). In Singapore, the ageing of the population together with the rise in rates of obesity and sedentary lifestyle parallelled the rise of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. FK228 in vivo The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus in 2004 was
8.2% in adults aged 18 to 69 years (Lim et al 2004). Diabetes doubles the risk of cardiovascular disease (Wang et al 2005) and, in Singapore, one-third of patients developing cardiovascular disease were reported to have underlying Type 2 diabetes mellitus (Lee et al 2001). Singaporeans have a higher percentage of body fat for the same body mass index as Caucasians (Deurenberg-Yap et al 2003), and those with Type 2 diabetes mellitus have significantly higher body mass index and
waist:hip ratio compared with healthy adults (Lim et al 2004). Aerobic exercise is known to reduce weight and maintain good glycaemic control, and thus reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease among diabetic patients (Lee et al 2001). Studies involving exercise as a therapeutic intervention in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus have focused primarily on aerobic training (Boule et al 2003, Snowling and Hopkins 2006). The beneficial effects of aerobic training on the metabolic profile include reduced HbA1c, lowered blood pressure and resting heart rate, improved cardiac output and oxygen extraction, favorable lipid profile, and reduction of BKM120 ic50 weight and waist circumference (Albright et al 2000, Boule et al 2001, Lim et al 2004, Sigal et al 2007, Snowling and Hopkins 2006, Tresierras and Balady 2009). In spite of the reported beneficial effects of aerobic exercise on cardiovascular and metabolic parameters, adoption of aerobic activities may be difficult for some patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus, especially those who are older
and obese (Willey and Singh 2003). In the last decade, there has been increasing interest in the role of resistance exercise in the management of diabetes as it appears to improve insulin sensitivity (Tresierras and Balady 2009). While the American College of Sports Medicine recommended resistance exercise at least twice a week (Albright et al 2000), the American Diabetes Association recommended Rolziracetam it three times per week. These recommendations were based primarily on findings from two trials comparing aerobic and resistance exercise (Cauza et al 2005, Dunstan et al 2002). However, neither study attempted to make the modes of exercise comparable in intensity or duration. Furthermore, some studies have included both modes in the same intervention arm (Cuff et al 2003, Maiorana et al 2000), thus limiting our ability to compare the two. Other data suggest that progressive resistance exercise has benefits in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes (Neil and Ronald 2006, Irvine and Taylor 2009).