Like γδ T cells, IL-17-producing iNKT cells are also present in t

Like γδ T cells, IL-17-producing iNKT cells are also present in the lymph nodes and skin. Furthermore, like γδ T cells, stimulation of iNKT cells with cytokines alone, in particular IL-1β and IL-23, induces innate production of IL-17 [102]. Unlike Th17 cells, IL-6 does not seem to be required for γδ T cell or iNKT IL-17 production [37, 103, 104]. Other inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-18, may also be involved in the induction of IL-17 production by iNKT cells. IL-18 alone or in combination with TGF-β induces IL-17 production from peripheral blood mono-nuclear Alectinib mw cells from healthy human donors [105]. In addition,

a subpopulation of IL-17-producing iNKT cells has been observed in rhesus macaques after infection with simian immunodeficiency virus and this was associated with increased plasma levels of IL-18 and type I IFN [105]. Research into IL-17 and related cytokines has significantly enhanced our understanding of the mechanisms of immunity to infection and the dysregulated immune

responses that lead to different inflammatory pathologies. From this knowledge, exciting new drug targets for the treatment of autoimmune diseases have evolved. While much of the early Ulixertinib datasheet focus was on IL-17-secreting CD4+ T cells (Th17 cells), there is a significant body of evidence to suggest that there are other lymphocyte populations that provide an “”innate”" source of IL-17, including γδ T cells and various populations of lineage negative, RORγt positive, ILCs. These cells appear to function primarily in a defensive capacity against pathogens at mucosal surfaces, providing an early source of IL-17 to recruit neutrophils to the site of

infection. Furthermore, γδ T cells and ILCs play a role in pathological inflammatory and autoimmune disease. Further characterization of ILC function may therefore identify important new targets for therapeutic intervention against these diseases. This work was supported by grant funding enough from Science Foundation Ireland to Kingston Mills (PI grant 06/In.1/B87 and IRC grant 07/SRC/B11440). Kingston Mills is a co-founder and shareholder in Opsona Therapeutics and TriMod Therapeutics Ltd., start-up companies involved in the development of immunotherapeutics. “
“Citation Talwar GP, Gupta JC, Shankar NV. Immunological approaches against human chorionic gonadotropin for control of fertility and therapy of advanced-stage cancers expressing hCG/subunits. Am J Reprod Immunol 2011; 66: 26–39 The year 2011 marks the 84th year of the discovery of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) by Ascheim and Zondek. Originally considered and employed as a reliable diagnostic index for pregnancy, the multiple roles of hCG as an initiator and sustainer of pregnancy are now recognized.

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