Magnification x40; Zeiss (AxioCam MRc5). Supplementary Figure 5. Isolation of PMNs as described in “Materials and Methods” shows a purity greater than 95%. Heparin-anticoagulated blood of 3–4 mice was pooled
and PMNs were isolated as described in “Materials and Methods”. Isolated PMNs were stained with anti-mouse Ly6G FITC (1A8) for subsequent FACS analysis. Supplementary Figure 6. The extracellular expression of CXCR2 of Lcn2-/- PMNs is significantly reduced compared to Lcn2+/+ mice. 200 μL of blood was drawn by retroorbital blood puncture of untreated Lcn2-/- and Lcn2+/+ mice at the age of 8 weeks. Whole blood was prepared for analysis of PMNs expression markers by means of FACS analysis Neratinib mouse as described in Materials and Methods. A granulocyte selleck compound gate was set and Ly6G positive cells were analysed for CXCR2 surface expression. Data are shown as mean ± SEM of 4 mice. Student`s t-test was used for statistical analysis. “
“Characterization of the first tapeworm genome, Echinococcus multilocularis, is now nearly complete, and genome assemblies of E. granulosus, Taenia solium and Hymenolepis microstoma are in advanced draft versions. These initiatives herald the beginning of a genomic era in cestodology and
underpin a diverse set of research agendas targeting both basic and applied aspects of tapeworm biology. We discuss the progress in the genomics of these species, provide insights into the presence and composition of immunologically relevant gene families, including the antigen B- and EG95/45W families, and discuss chemogenomic approaches toward the development of novel chemotherapeutics Dapagliflozin against cestode diseases. In addition, we discuss the evolution of tapeworm parasites and introduce the research programmes linked to genome initiatives that are aimed at understanding signalling systems involved in basic host–parasite interactions and morphogenesis. Whole-genome sequencing of cestodes
began in 2004 and currently includes the aetiological agents of alveolar echinococcosis (AE; Echinococcus multilocularis), cystic echinococcosis (CE; E. granulosus) and neurocysticercosis (NCC; Taenia solium) in addition to the rodent-hosted laboratory model, Hymenolepis microstoma. With the genomes of Echinococcus spp. near completion, and those of Taenia and Hymenolepis in advanced drafts, we have only begun to explore their full content, structure and general characteristics. Nevertheless, genomic and transcriptomic data are already advancing research in both basic and applied aspects of tapeworm biology and herald the beginning of a new era in cestodology. Here, we review the progress made in the genomics of tapeworms and provide initial insights into the presence of immunologically relevant molecules and chemogenomic approaches to the development of new vaccines.