Measuring pre- and post-glycogen status was not feasible for this

Measuring pre- and post-glycogen status was not feasible for this design; however, subjects were asked to eat similar food composition before each arm. Lastly, despite each subject acting Cell Cycle inhibitor as their own control, the inclusion of an isolated control group (no treatment) would have provided an additional comparison to evaluate the effects of re-feeding versus no re-feeding. Particularly for the RPE hypothesis, which

resulted in no differences between means, including an isolated control group could have provided data to support the importance of re-feeding to reduce RPE. For this particular study design, including a control group could have been unethical considering the setting and absence of medical personnel. Conclusions The findings of this study are important to the sports and exercise performance industries because there is a need for novel research on specific macronutrient products. The outcomes exploit the benefits of consuming a complex protein drink versus carbohydrate-only beverage following glycogen signaling pathway depleting exercise. In addition, the 2:1 HIRT protocol (which is was an original design created by the primary researcher) could be used in other nutrient timing or performance studies as a tool to measure performance or

implemented in a similar capacity, i.e. glycogen depleting exercise. Nutrition experts are frequently asked to recommend specific products for supplementation, and this design used VPX Protein Rush™ and concentrated Gatorade®, two products that are accessible to the public. This study elucidated the differential effects of a ready-to-drink, complex protein beverage and an iCHO-only beverage on common performance measures, and offers practical information on nutritional post-workout strategies to prepare for repeated performance. Controlled studies within the sports medicine

and exercise performance fields provide valuable insight into how the human body reacts to and recovers from high intensity physical exercise. Results from this, and other similar studies can be beneficial when applied to high stress, intense performance professions, such as firefighters, disaster relief workers and C1GALT1 the military. The use of protein supplements during prolonged physical effort can be an invaluable source of energy when endurance is critical. This study strongly indicates that after intense activity, consumption of a complex protein beverage may favorably influence subsequent physical performance better than an isocaloric carbohydrate drink. Based on this information, complex protein beverages may provide advantages to individuals with acute physical stressors as well as tactical operators and high performance athletes. Additional research is warranted.

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