Modern postnatal management of suprasellar arachnoid cyst consist

Modern postnatal management of suprasellar arachnoid cyst consists of endoscopic cystoventriculostomy.

(C) 2014 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The prevalence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS ) diagnoses has significantly increased as a result of active radiographic screening. Surgical resection and hormone and radiation therapies are effective treatments, but not all DCIS will progress to invasive breast cancer. Therefore, markers are needed to define tumors at low risk NVP-LBH589 of recurrence and progression that can be treated by surgery alone rather than by adjuvant therapies. Initial analyses indicate that retinoblastoma (RB)-pathway perturbations occur at high frequency in DCIS and mirror the molecular alterations observed in invasive breast cancer. Particularly, the elevated expression of p16ink4a in DCIS was associated with loss of RB function and estrogen receptor negative biology. Furthermore, high expression of p16ink4a in conjunction with Ki-67 was associated with increased risk of DCIS recurrence and progression to invasive disease in multivariate analyses. These data are consistent with a functional role for RB in modulating the invasive behavior of mammary epithelial cells. The tissue microenvironment is particularly relevant to the behavior of DCIS , and, surprisingly, elevated expression of p16ink4a in nonproliferative stroma was observed in

a substantial fraction of cases. In this tissue compartment, p16ink4a expression was strongly associated with disease recurrence, independent of standard histopathologic features. AZD9291 mouse AC220 nmr Together, the data herein describe dual aspects of RB-pathway biology that are associated with disease recurrence through the epithelial or stromal compartment of DCIS. (Am J Pathol 2011. 179:1171-1178; DOI: 10.1016/j.ajpath.2011.05.043)”
“The cell surface glycoprotein CD44 enhances phorbol-12-myristate

13-acetate (TPA)-induced expression of p21(WAF1) by stabilizing its mRNA and enhancing the protein’s half-life in several cell lines. Only the plasma membrane-anchored cytoplasmic tail of CD44 and its interacting ezrin, radixin, moesin (ERM) proteins are required for this effect. A mitogen activated kinase (MEK) inhibitor abolishes the action of CD44 on p21. Down-regulation of p21 dramatically decreased anchorage-independence of a cancer cell line, whereas CD44 expression in this background could partially rescue the phenotype. (C) 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Tank-forming bromeliads, suspended in the rainforest canopy, possess foliage arranged in compact rosettes capable of long-term retention of rainwater. This large and unique aquatic habitat is inhabited by microorganisms involved in the important decomposition of impounded material. Moreover, these communities are likely influenced by environmental factors such as pH, oxygen, and light.

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