Nephrectomy did not affect the incidence of hypertension, but an increase in systolic BP (2.4 mmHg, P > 0.05) was observed, which increased further with follow up (1.1 mmHg/decade). Diastolic BP increased after nephrectomy (3.1 mmHg), but this increment did not change with duration of follow up.26 Another large meta-analysis by Boudville et al.27 examined results from 48 studies with a total of 5145 donors (Fig. 1). They concluded that kidney donors have an increase in BP of approximately 5 mmHg systolic and 4 mmHg diastolic, above that expected
with normal ageing, within 5–10 years of donation. In the general population, every 10 mmHg increase in systolic BP and 5 mmHg increase in diastolic BP is associated with www.selleckchem.com/products/LBH-589.html a 1.5-fold increase in mortality from both ischaemic heart disease and stroke.28 Boudville et al.27 also reviewed the risk of developing hypertension in donors. Six studies were assessed (total of 249 donors comparing results against 161 control participants), however, results could not be pooled due to heterogeneity in the groups. Only one of the six studies (Watnick et al.20) showed an increase in the risk of developing hypertension (relative risk: 1.9 (confidence interval: 1.1–3.5)). All others showed no difference. It must be noted that none of these studies were adequately powered to detect a meaningful
difference between the study and the control groups (less than 80% chance of detecting a 1.5-fold increase Mephenoxalone in the GSK2126458 order risk of hypertension). The donor population in each individual study ranged from 15 to 50 patients whereas the control population ranged from only 0 to 10 patients. In summary, there is no conclusive evidence that kidney donation increases the risk of developing hypertension in normal individuals. The studies examining this, however, are very limited. Studies do show that kidney donation is associated with a small increase in BP within the normal range. Since reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and hypertension are both important cardiovascular risk factors, it is very important to explain
this potential added risk and also aggressively treat other cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking, hyperlipidaemia, obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes during follow up. The presence of established hypertension in potential live kidney donors has been considered to be a contraindication to proceeding with donation. Conclusive recommendations regarding the routine use of hypertensive donors cannot be made at this stage since only short-term cohort studies have been reported. Textor et al.29 showed that 58 donors with normal renal function and controlled hypertension on 1–2 medications showed no increased risk of renal deterioration, microalbuminuria or poor BP control at 12 months. A follow-up study by the same investigators examined 148 living kidney donors before and 6–12 months after nephrectomy.