Two new indices, the Normalized Difference Glacier Index (NDGI) and the Normalized Difference Snow Ice Index (NDSII), are presented. The combination
of all three indices allows discrimination of snow, ice and IMD in a systematic manner.”
“Some individuals manifest psychosomatic symptoms after the death of their pets. A survey was conducted at four public and commercial animal cremation service centers in Japan. In each center, a questionnaire was distributed to 100 individuals (400 in total). The questionnaire consisted of the 28-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ28), the social readjustment rating scale (SRRS) and a series of questions regarding demographic information and the circumstances of their pet’s
death. In total, 82 returned questionnaires Selleck Fer-1 were available for analysis. GHQ28 proved the existence of neurotic symptoms in 46 responses (56.1%; 95% confidence selleck chemical interval: 44.7%-67.0%). Analysis of the responses using the GHQ28 subscales with a Likert scoring system demonstrated more somatic dysfunction in females (GHQ-A: P=0.04). Furthermore, significant correlations were identified among the following factors: owner’s age (GHQ-A: rho=-0.60, P=0.01; GHQ-B: rho=-0.29, P=0.01; GHQ-C: rho=-0.32, P smaller than 0.01; GHQ-D: rho=-0.42, P smaller than 0.01), SRRS score (GHQ-A: rho=0.32, P smaller than 0.01; GHQ-B: rho=0.25, P=0.02; GHQ-D: rho=0.30, P=0.01) and animal’s GSK1210151A order age (GHQ-D: rho=-0.26, P=0.02).
The death of indoor pets caused deeper depression (GHQ-D: P=0.01) than that of outdoor or visiting pets. The results revealed neurotic symptoms in almost half of the pet owners shortly after their pet’s death.”
“Colon anastomotic leakage has a multifactorial etiology and ischemia is considered one of the most important single factors. However, no existing animal models have established a direct link between ischemia and anastomotic leakage. The aim of this study was to establish a model of colon anastomotic leakage as a result of tissue ischemia. In colon anastomoses of 53 C57BL/6 mice, varying degrees of ischemia were induced. Supplying vessels were divided with bipolar coagulation in order to reduce anastomotic breaking strength and create clinical anastomotic leakage. Breaking strength of all the ischemic anastomoses were significantly lower compared with controls. Increasing ischemia resulted in higher rates of large bowel obstruction without creating anastomotic leakage. Healing was compromised as a result of impaired blood supply. However, clinical leakage was absent. Pure ischemia in otherwise healthy experimental animals may be too simple of an approach to create clinical leakage.”
“Polysaccharides in their great majority are thymus-independent (TI) antigens. Anti-polysaccharide antibody responses are generally weak and characterized by lack of memory, isotype restriction and delayed ontogeny.