But will any single biomarker such as NGAL suffice in AKI? In addition to early diagnosis and prediction, it would be desirable to identify biomarkers capable of discerning Wnt drug AKI subtypes, identifying aetiologies, predicting clinical outcomes, allowing for risk stratification and monitoring the response to interventions. In order to obtain all of this desired information, a panel of validated biomarkers may be needed. Other AKI biomarker
candidates may include interleukin-18 (IL-18), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), cystatin C and liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), to name a few.1–3 The availability of a panel of validated AKI biomarkers, such as those illustrated in Figure 1, could further revolutionize and personalize renal and critical care in the near future. Studies cited in this review that were performed by the author’s laboratory were supported by grants from the NIH (R01 DK53289, RO1 DK069749 and R21 DK070163). Dr Devarajan is a co-inventor on NGAL patents. Biosite(R) Incorporated has signed an exclusive licensing agreement with Cincinnati Children’s Hospital for developing plasma NGAL as a Quizartinib concentration biomarker of acute renal failure. Abbott Diagnostics has signed
an exclusive licensing agreement with Cincinnati Children’s Hospital for developing urine NGAL as a biomarker of acute renal failure. Dr Devarajan has received honoraria for speaking assignments from Biosite(R) Incorporated and Abbott Diagnostics. “
“Date written: June 2008 Final submission: June 2009 Kidney transplant recipients should be advised to take a vitamin D (or analogue) supplement at a dose of at least 0.25 µg daily. (Level I and II) (Suggestions are based on Level III and IV evidence) The treating physician should determine the dose of vitamin D and the necessity of other treatments for minimizing bone mineral density loss, on the basis of available evidence. A rapid decline in bone mineral density occurs in the early post-transplant period.3,4 Though the rate of bone loss may decelerate or cease by around 3 years post-transplant, bone mineral Etomidate density remains below normal.5 The risk of bone fractures
among kidney transplant recipients is four times that among the general population.6 At the time of transplantation, there are usually already significant abnormalities of bone remodelling related to chronic kidney disease.7 Reduced calcium absorption due to prednisone,8 hyperparathyroidism9 and abnormal vitamin D metabolism10 are among the factors contributing to the further weakening of bones and the risk of bone disease post-transplantation. There is an increased risk of bone loss among females, particularly post-menopausal.11 This review set out to explore and collate the evidence to support the use of particular nutrition interventions for the prevention and management of bone disease in kidney transplant recipients, based on the best evidence up to and including September 2006.