pestis, as in many other Gram-negative bacteria, is a central transcriptional regulator responding to the cellular iron status [20, 50], as indicated in the schematic of Figure 5. Many iron uptake systems are transcriptionally repressed during iron-replete growth conditions to reduce accumulation of intracellular iron. Evidence
has emerged that small RNA regulators are implicated in bacterial stress responses . These small RNAs act by base-pairing with specific mRNAs whose translation they stimulate or inhibit in the presence of a unique protein, the RNA chaperone Hfq. A small RNA of 90 nucleotides determined to regulate genes involved in iron homeostasis in E. coli  and Pseudomonas aeruginosa  was termed RyhB. It is negatively regulated by Fur and was shown to down-regulate the translation of many of the same iron-dependent enzymes we detected AZD4547 as decreased in iron-starved Y. pestis cells (SdhA, AcnA, FumA, FrdA, SodB, KatE and KatY) . We
hypothesize that one or both of the conserved Y. pestis homologs of RyhB  co-regulate Y. pestis iron homeostasis and selectively decrease translation of mRNAs whose protein products depend on or store iron, as illustrated in Figure 5. Such a mechanism may restrict the use of scarce intracellular iron to processes pivotal to bacterial survival. Some of the encoding genes (e.g. ftnA, katE and sodB) may also be positively controlled by Fur as Selleckchem Nutlin 3 suggested by Yang et al. . Gel shift assays revealed binding of recombinant Fur to promoter regions upstream of the genes ftnA and katE . Several of the enzymes decreased in abundance in iron-deficient Y. pestis harbor Fe-S clusters. Expression of the respective genes did not appear to be altered under conditions sequestering or depleting iron in Y. pestis according to two DNA microarray studies [33, 35] and suggests post-transcriptional mechanisms. The involvement of RyhB in controlling the abundances of proteins with iron cofactors when cells are iron-deficient needs to be verified. Since our data were derived from proteomic comparisons Suplatast tosilate of Y. pestis cells harvested at different cell densities
(OD600s of ~2.0 for stationary phase cells vs. OD600s of ~0.8 for growth arrested, iron-starved cells), the argument can be made that population density differences account for some of the protein abundance changes. Unpublished data (Pieper, R.) and a previous study analyzing the Y. pestis periplasmic proteome in the context of two growth phases  allow us to largely refute this notion. Among the proteins with iron or Fe-S cofactors, only PflB and KatE were increased in stationary vs. exponential phase proteomic profiles with ratios comparable to those observed in iron-rich vs. iron-starved cells. FtnA and Bfr are iron storage proteins and, via regulation by RyhB, were reported to be quantitatively decreased when iron supplies are limited in E. coli . Our data on the FtnA and Bfr orthologs of Y.