PubMed 64 Weisburg WG, Barns SM, Pelletier DA, Lane DJ:16S ribos

PubMed 64. Weisburg WG, Barns SM, Pelletier DA, Lane DJ:16S ribosomal DNA amplification for phylogenetic study. J Bacteriol1991,173(2):697–703.PubMed 65. Dotzauer C, Ehrmann MA, Vogel RF:Occurrence and detection of Thermoanaerobacterium and Thermoanaerobacter in canned food. Food Technol

Biotechnol2002,40:21–26. Authors’ contributions FR carried out the molecular genetic studies and phenotypic tests and drafted the manuscript. THMS participated in the design and the implementation of the phenotypic tests. EM isolated, characterized and provided strains, and contributed to the study design. JEF participated in the conception and execution of the study. BD conceived and led the study, and helped draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Campylobacter spp. are one of the major causes of human gastroenteritis AICAR worldwide and are estimated to cause over two million cases of find more illness annually in the U.S. [1]. Greater than 95% of human infections are due to C. jejuni or C. coli [2]. Human disease is characterized by diarrhea, buy CA4P fever, and abdominal cramping [3]. Campylobacteriosis is most often associated with the handling and consumption of raw or undercooked poultry [2–4]. In poultry, Campylobacter is considered

a commensal organism [4]. When colonized poultry enter the processing plant, contamination of the carcass and processed product can result [4]. Turkey is an important reservoir of Campylobacter; studies have reported prevalence rates of 65-95% in U.S. turkeys at production [5–7]. In a study from our lab, the prevalence of Campylobacter was 34.9% from two turkey processing plants [8], while at the retail level, the organism has been detected in 1.0-15% of samples tested [9, 10]. Human campylobacteriosis is generally self-limiting,

although in severe cases it requires antimicrobial therapy. Erythromycin and ciprofloxacin are often the drugs of choice [11]. Fluoroquinolones such as ciprofloxacin have been used for first-line treatment of bacterial gastroenteritis in the absence of a microbiological diagnosis [3]. However, an increase in fluoroquinolone-resistant Decitabine cell line Campylobacter infections in humans has been documented worldwide [12–14], and may be associated with fluoroquinolone use in food animals [12, 15, 16]. Although the approval of enrofloxacin (a fluoroquinolone) for use in poultry was withdrawn by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2005, it is possible that fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter will persist in poultry flocks [17]. Macrolides such as erythromycin have been the preferred treatment for Campylobacter infections [3, 13]; however, increasing resistance to erythromycin among Campylobacter has been documented, particularly in C. coli [12, 18–20].

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