The genetic and environmental risk for substance consumption is p

The genetic and environmental risk for substance consumption is partly mediated through a common factor and is partly substance specific. Developmentally, evidence was strongest for stability of common genetic effects, with less evidence for genetic innovation. These processes seem to be the same in males and females.”
“Background. Increased impulsivity is considered to be

a core characteristic of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and has been shown to play a significant role in decision making and planning. Neuropsychological studies in BPD revealed impairments of executive functions, and it is assumed that CYT387 these deficits are related to altered feedback processing. However, research on executive functions in BPD is still limited and the underlying deficits remain an open question. The present study, therefore, explored whether decision-making deficits are related to altered feedback evaluation in BPD.

Method. A total of 18 BPD patients and 18 matched healthy controls underwent a modified version

of the Iowa Gambling Task while an electroencephalogram was recorded. Feedback processing was examined by measuring the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the P300 as electrophysiological correlates of feedback evaluation.

Results. Copanlisib Behavioural results revealed that BPD patients, relative to controls, made more risky choices and did not improve their performance. With regard to the FRN, amplitudes in BPD patients did not discriminate between positive and negative feedback information. Further, BPD patients showed reduced FRN amplitudes, which were associated with enhanced impulsivity and enhanced risk taking. In contrast, the P300 amplitudes following negative feedback were increased in BPD patients, relative to controls.

Conclusions. This study indicates that BPD patients are impaired in decision making, which might be related to a dysfunctional use of feedback information. Specifically, BPD patients did not learn to avoid disadvantageous selections, even though they attended to negative consequences.”
“Background. Disturbances in social interaction

are a defining feature of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). In this study, facial emotional expressions, which are crucial for L-NAME HCl adaptive interactions in social contexts, were assessed in patients with BPD in response to social exclusion.

Method. We examined facial emotional reactions of 35 patients with BPD and 33 healthy controls when playing Cyberball, a virtual ball-tossing game that reliably induces social exclusion. Besides self-reported emotional responses, facial emotional expressions were analyzed by applying the Emotional Facial Action Coding System (EMFACS).

Results. Patients with BPD showed a biased perception of participation. They more readily reported feeling excluded compared to controls even when they were included. In BPD, social exclusion led to an increase in self-reported other-focused negative emotions.

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