The left atrial appendage was not visualized on TEE. A cardiac CT clarified that there was a left atrial appendage and provided an explanation as to why it was not visualized on TEE, highlighting the importance of multimodality imaging in patients with complex congenital heart disease. (C) 2012 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. All rights reserved.”
“Multiple different pathological protein aggregates are frequently seen in human postmortem brains and hence mixed pathology is common. Mixed dementia on the other hand is less frequent and neuropathologically should only be diagnosed if criteria for more than one full blown disease are met. We quantitatively
measured the amount of hyperphosphorylated microtubule associated tau (HP-tau), amyloid-beta protein (A beta) and alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn) in cases that were neuropathologically diagnosed as mixed Alzheimer’s disease selleck products (AD) and neocortical Lewy body disease (LBD) but clinically presented
either as dementia due to AD or LBD, the latter including dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD). Our study group consisted of 28 cases (mean age, 76.11 SE: +/- 1.29 years; m:f, 17:11) selleck compound of which 19 were neuropathologically diagnosed as mixed AD/DLB. Clinically, 8 mixed AD/DLB cases were diagnosed as AD (cAD), 8 as DLB (cDLB) and 3 as PDD (cPDD). In addition, we investigated cases that were both clinically and neuropathologically diagnosed as either AD (pure AD; n = 5) or DLB/neocortical LBD (pure DLB; n = 4). Sections from neocortical, limbic and subcortical areas were stained with antibodies against HP-tau, A beta and alpha-syn. The area covered by immunopositivity was measured using image analysis. cAD cases had higher HP-tau loads than both cDLB and cPDD and the distribution of HP-tau in cAD was similar to the one observed in pure AD whilst cDLB showed comparatively less hippocampal HP-tau load. cPDD cases showed lower HP-tau and A beta loads and higher alpha-syn loads. Here, we show that in neuropathologically mixed AD/DLB cases both the amount and the topographical distribution
of pathological protein aggregates differed between distinct clinical phenotypes. Large-scale clinicopathological correlative studies using a quantitative methodology click here are warranted to further elucidate the neuropathological correlate of clinical symptoms in cases with mixed pathology.”
“Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a complex congenital syndrome caused by a monoallelic deletion of the short arm of chromosome 4. Seizures in WHS have been associated with deletion of LETM1 gene. LETM1 encodes for the human homologue of yeast Mdm38p, a mitochondria-shaping protein of unclear function. Here we show that human LETM1 is located in the inner membrane, exposed to the matrix and oligomerized in higher molecular weight complexes of unknown composition.