The objectives of the study were to investigate whether the risk

The objectives of the study were to investigate whether the risk of developing lymphoma was Dabrafenib mw increased when blood EBV DNA load was high in preceding years and whether a cut-off value above which patients would be at a very high risk of progression to ARL could be determined. We conducted a nested case–control study within the French ANRS PRIMO and SEROCO/HEMOCO cohorts. Cases of B lymphoma were classified into two different groups: systemic B lymphoma and PBL. Ethics committee approvals were obtained for the two cohorts (PRIMO and SEROCO/HEMOCO)

and all patients gave written consent to participate in the cohort. Between 1996 and 2009, 808 antiretroviral-naïve HIV-infected patients presenting at the time of primary infection were enrolled in the ongoing ANRS PRIMO cohort. Primary infection was confirmed by an incomplete Western blot, or a positive p24 antigenaemia or a detectable plasma viral load with a negative or weakly reactive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test, or an interval of less

than 6 months between a negative and a positive ELISA test [17]. In this cohort, sera were collected and frozen at −80°C every 6 months and cells were collected and frozen at −196°C every 12 months. In the ANRS SEROCO/HEMOCO cohort, 1748 HIV-infected patients who had a recent diagnosis of HIV-1 infection (< 1 year) or a well-documented date of seroconversion were enrolled between 1988 and 2001 [18]. Serum samples and PBMC samples were collected and stored at −196°C every 6 months and every 18 months, respectively. In these cohorts, visits were Selleck RO4929097 Amino acid scheduled for clinical and biological examination every 6 months. The occurrence of AIDS-related events was recorded at follow-up visits (reviewed and checked in the medical files) and through repeated cross-checking with the national AIDS registry. At the time of this analysis, a diagnosis of NHL/brain lymphoma had been reported in 72 patients. Among these patients

with lymphoma, 43 patients, including 29 with B NHL confirmed histologically and 14 with PBL for whom no histology was available, had available frozen PBMCs and/or serum samples collected within 3 years preceding the diagnosis of lymphoma. EBV-encoded small RNA (EBER) mRNA results were not available except in one case of systemic B NHL, in which EBER mRNA was detected. The date of diagnosis of the lymphoma was called the ‘index date’. For each case, two controls were randomly selected from eligible individuals included in the cohorts with the same CD4 count (± 30 cells/μL) in the year of lymphoma diagnosis (index case). The main known risk factors for NHL (CD4 cell count and age) were taken into account by adjustment in multivariate analysis. Characteristics of the cases and controls are reported in Table 1.

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