The physicochemical quality of the raw sewage and treated effluen

The physicochemical quality of the raw sewage and treated effluents was also determined. Free-living Listeria were more prevalent (96%), compared to plankton-associated Listeria species (58-67%). Listeria pathogens were sensitive to 11 (55%) of the 20 tested antibiotics, and showed varying (7-71%) levels of resistance to eight antibiotics. Turbidity, COD, NO(3), PO(4) and Listeria density fell short of recommended

standards after treatment; while pH, temperature, TDS, DO and NO(2) were compliant with target quality after treatment. We conclude that final effluents of wastewater treatment plants are potential sources of Listeria pathogens in the aquatic milieu of South Africa.”
“Objective-To evaluate the efficacy of vaccination with the Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo type hardjoprajitno GSK690693 supplier component of a pentavalent Leptospira bacterin against a virulent experimental challenge with Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Z-VAD-FMK cell line hardjo type hardjo-bovis strain 203 in cattle.\n\nAnimals-Fifty-five 6-month-old Holstein heifers.\n\nProcedures-Heifers that were negative for persistent infection with bovine viral

diarrhea virus determined via immunohistochemical testing and negative for Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona, Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo, Leptospira interrogans serovar grippotyphosa, Leptospira interrogans serovar bratislava, Leptospira interrogans serovar canicola, and Leptospira interrogans serovar icterohaemorrhagiae determined via microscopic agglutination assay were enrolled in the study. Two heifers were separated and used for the challenge passage. The remaining heifers were vaccinated twice with a commercial pentavalent bacterin or a sham vaccine 21 days apart and subsequently challenged with L borgpetersenii serovar hardjo type hardjo-bovis strain

203. Urinary shedding, antibody titers, and clinical signs of leptospirosis infection were recorded for 8 weeks after challenge.\n\nResults-Heifers that received the pentavalent bacterin did not shed the organism in urine after challenge Kinesin inhibitor and did not have renal colonization at necropsy. Heifers that were sham vaccinated shed the organism in urine and had renal colonization.\n\nConclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results provided evidence that a pentavalent Leptospira vaccine containing L interrogans serovar hardjo type hardjoprajitno can provide protection against challenge with L borgpetersenii serovar hardjo type hardjo-bovis strain 203. It is important to demonstrate cross-protection that is vaccine specific against disease-causing strains of organisms that are prevalent under field conditions. (Am J Vet Res 2012;73:735-740)”
“In oral pathology, laser devices can provide important advantages, especially in the treatment of certain lesions. However, there is controversy about the use of some wavelengths in the analysis of suspected dysplastic or neoplastic lesions, raising doubt about the laser’s suitability for use in biopsy procedures.

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