The proportional time and distance spent in the light field and

The proportional time and distance spent in the light field and the number of transitions were analyzed by the Mann–Whitney U test. Novel environment locomotion Locomotor activity was measured using an automated activity monitor (Accuscan Instruments, Inc., Columbus, OH). Experiments were performed between 1000 and 1600 h. Mice were allowed to explore the locomotor activity chamber (20 × 20 cm) for #selleck chemicals llc keyword# 2 h. Activity (converted from infrared beam breaks to cm) was measured at 5 min intervals. Measurements of activity were analyzed using repeated measures two-way ANOVA while cumulative means were assessed by the Student’s t-test. Elevated plus maze Anxiety-like

and exploratory behavior were evaluated using an elevated plus

maze 50 cm above the floor with four arms 30 cm long and 5 cm wide (two darkened and enclosed with 40 cm walls). Mice were placed into the center of the maze facing one of the open arms. The accumulated time and distance spent on the open Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and closed arms, along with the entries into each of the arms was recorded over a single trial of 5 min using the automated tracking system (AnyMaze, Stoelting, Wood Dale, IL). The percentage of time spent on each of the arms and the number of entries into the arms were analyzed using Student’s t-test or Mann–Whitney U test as parameters measuring anxiety-like Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical behavior. Rotarod Mice were placed on a stationary rod of an automated rotarod apparatus (SD Instruments, San Diego, CA). The rotation of

the rod was then initiated at the speed of 5 rpm, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical which accelerated at a rate of 10 rpm/min to 35 rpm over the course of 3 min. Latency to fall was automatically recorded using infrared beam break as the animal fell from the rod. Mice were tested on 10 trials during the first day, and four trials the next day, each with 15 min intertrial intervals. Results were analyzed Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical by repeated measures ANOVA. Grip strength Forelimb grip strength was measured using a horizontally mounted digital force gauge (Chatillon, Largo, FL). Mice held by the base of their tails were slowly lowered and allowed to grasp a triangular bar attached to the gauge. The mice were then pulled backwards along the horizontal plane of the gauge. The peak tension of 10 successive trials was collected. Mean peak tension results for each genotype were analyzed secondly by Student’s t-test. Hanging wire Each mouse was placed on a wire cage top (square ½ inch mesh) which was gently shaken once to encourage the mice to grasp. The wire cage top was slowly inverted and suspended 40 cm above the base of a padded Plexiglas box. The mice were given three trials up to 300 sec with an intersession interval of 30 sec. The time it took each mouse to fall from the cage top was recorded. The mean trial hanging time results for each genotype were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and mean cumulative hang time over each of the trials were analyzed by Student’s t-test.

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