The results from the mutations at these four residues show that the energies of PL or PM can be preferentially changed depending on the placement of a charged residue. The amount of B-side electron transfer after excitation at 390 nm has been observed to be altered in the HE(L168)/ND(L170) mutant in a pH-dependent manner that has been interpreted as arising from the presence of ionizable amino acids residues (Haffa et al. 2004). At pH 7.2, electron transfer occurs along the A-branch resulting in the charge-separated state P•+QA •−. At pH 9.5, excitation leads to electron
transfer involving the B branch of cofactors and results in the state B B •+ H B •– . The present ENDOR/TRIPLE measurements are consistent with the proposal that the switch to B-side electron transfer is due to electrostatic
interactions involving AZD6738 ic50 the cofactors and the introduced substitutions. The results indicate that the energies of PL and PM change by about 100 meV due to these charges. The comparable distances of L170 to P and BB, 9.0 and 10.5 Å respectively, suggests that B-side electron transfer occurs at least partially by a decrease of the energy of BB •+ by 100 meV, Selleckchem MCC-950 thus favoring formation of B B •+ H B •– (Haffa et al. 2004). In general, these data are not only consistent with the idea that B-side electron transfer can be manipulated by the introduction of charges that favor formation of the B-side charge-separated states but also provide a means to quantify the energies of these states. Acknowledgments Tyrosine-protein kinase BLK Student support for this project was provided by the ASU’s IGERT in Biomolecular Nanotechnology, funded by the NSF (DGE-0114434). As part of this project,
students were able to prepare MLN2238 order samples at ASU and spend time performing research in Mülheim/Ruhr. In addition, students also performed FTIR measurements in Saclay with Eliane Nabedryk and Jacques Breton; we gratefully acknowledge their hospitality during this work. Alexey Silakov (MPI Mülheim) is acknowledged for writing the Matlab routine to analyze the Special TRIPLE spectra. The work was partially supported from the NSF (MCB0640002 and MCB0642260) and from the Max Planck Society. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited. References Allen JP, Williams JC (2006) The influence of protein interactions on the properties of the bacteriochlorophyll dimer in reaction centers. In: Grimm B, Porra RJ, Rüdiger W, Scheer H (eds) Chlorophylls and bacteriochlorophylls: biochemistry, biophysics functions and applications. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 283–295 Allen JP, Feher G, Yeates TO, Komiya H, Rees DC (1987) Structure of the reaction center from Rhodobacter sphaeroides R-26: the cofactors.