Their tensile values were either moderate (E approximate to 45-55

Their tensile values were either moderate (E approximate to 45-55 GPa, sigma approximate Selleckchem BI-D1870 to 1800-1000 MPa) or high

(E > 55 GPa, sigma > 1000 MPa). Three major types of stress-strain behaviour were observed, but in different proportions in each sample. The first one consisted of a linear tensile behaviour; the second one was composed of two linear distinct sections, and the third one displayed a non-linear section at the beginning of the loading stage up to a threshold point, followed by a section where the tangent modulus increased up to failure. The samples exhibiting a large proportion of the third type of behaviour were characterised by high tensile properties. The extent of the non-linear section highly depended on the variety. Within the Marylin variety, the tensile properties were higher when the non-linear section was smaller. Considering the fibre as a composite

per se, reinforced by cellulose microfibrils coated with hemicelluloses embedded in a matrix of incrusting pectins, we found some correlation between tensile behaviours and the cell-wall composition that highlighted the importance of the hemicelluloses and hemicelluloses/pectins ratio. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Contents Little is known about the response of the bitch’s reproductive tract to mating or of the role of male accessory gland secretions in the female. In this clinical study, the component GSK1210151A mw stimuli causing mating-induced uterine

contractions were investigated in 64 bitches. Basal uterine contractions were present during oestrus and a significant increase in the frequency of contractions was observed during natural mating. Neither teasing with a male nor stimulation of the vagina or cervix by vaginal or transcervical insemination (TCI) caused an increase in the frequency of uterine contractions. Increased contractions were however present after both vaginal and AZD2014 transcervical insemination when the vestibule was distended, and dorsal wall of the vaginal was manually stimulated. Interestingly, this increase in uterine contractions was partially ameliorated when prostatic fluid was used as a flushing component following transcervical insemination. Two further studies performed with 72 bitches of which 18 were each inseminated transcervically with fresh or frozen semen flushed into the uterus with either saline or prostatic fluid demonstrated that prostatic fluid significantly increased the pregnancy rate and litter size of both groups. There are important mechanisms regulating the transport and elimination of sperm from the bitch’s reproductive tract. Whilst physical aspects of coitus are undoubtedly involved in initiating uterine contractions, prostatic fluid appears to have an important role in modulating uterine contractions and fertility.

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