These spigots were present in P sagittifer; however, similarly p

These spigots were present in P. sagittifer; however, similarly positioned spigots in the undescribed species were not obviously modified (i.e., wider or with larger openings relative to the other piriform spigots). Close affinity to Mimetus was also indicated by tartipore-accommodated PLS aciniform silk glands in both Phobetinus species. These have been consistently observed in Mimetus, but not in Australomimetus or Ero. Somatic and genitalic drawings of P. sagittifer are provided to aid

identification and similarities are Geneticin noted between male pedipalps of Mimetus and Phobetinus. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Understanding the role of the developmental pathways in shaping phenotypic diversity allows appreciating in full the processes influencing and constraining morphological change. Podarcis lizards demonstrate extraordinary morphological variability that likely originated in short evolutionary time. Using geometric morphometrics and a broad suite of

statistical tests, we explored the role of developmental mechanisms such as growth rate change, ontogenetic divergence/convergence/parallelism as well as morphological expression of heterochronic processes in mediating the formation of their phenotypic diversity during the post-natal ontogeny. We identified hypermorphosis – the prolongation of growth along the Cilengitide research buy same trajectory – as the process responsible for both intersexual and interspecific morphological differentiation. Albeit the common allometric pattern observed in both sexes of any species constrains and canalizes their cephalic scales variation in a fixed portion of the phenotypic

space, the extended growth experienced by males and some species allows them to achieve peramorphic morphologies. Conversely, the intrasexual phenotypic diversity is accounted for by non-allometric processes that drive the extensive morphological dispersion throughout their ontogenetic trajectories. This study suggests a model of how simple heterochronic perturbations can produce LY3023414 phenotypic variation, and thus potential for further evolutionary change, even within a strictly constrained developmental pathway.”
“This paper presents the study on natural frequency characteristics of a thin-walled functionally graded material (FGM) cylindrical shell with rings support under symmetric uniform interior pressure distribution. The FGM properties are graded along the thickness direction of the shell. The FGM shell equations with rings support and interior pressure are established based on first-order shear deformation theory. The governing equations of motion were employed, using energy functional and by applying the Ritz method.

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