This competition took place two days before spinal segment mobility was measured. Spinal mobility was determined by the electrogoniometric method using a Penny & Giles electrogoniometer (Biometrics Tofacitinib Citrate solubility Ltd, Gwent, UK) that took measured angular movements in individual spinal articulations (Troke and Moore, 1995; Thoumie et al., 1998; Christensen, 1999; Lewandowski, 2006). This method is characterized by high reliability and precision, and the obtained results are comparable to those determined radiologically and to Polish population normative values (Lewandowski, 2006). The measurements were taken in cervical, thoracic and lumbar spinal segments.
Spinal mobility was determined in coronal, sagittal, and transverse planes, and the respective asymmetry coefficients were calculated based on the following formula (Siniarska and Sarna, 1980): A=Xp?Xl(Xp+Xl)2*100% A �C asymmetry coefficient; Xp �C the value of a given characteristic determined on the right side; Xl �C the value of a given characteristic determined on the left side. Direct values of asymmetry coefficients (Am) were calculated for the mobility of individual spinal segments, and coefficients of correlation were calculated between those parameters and the paddling speed. This method enabled us to analyze the potential associations between the degree of asymmetry and the racing speed, irrespective of the side of the boat chosen by the canoeists for paddling. All the procedures of this study were approved by the Local Ethics Committee by the Karol Marcinkowski University of Medical Sciences in Poznan, Poland.
Analysis All calculations were carried out using the Statistica 9.0 package (StatSoft, Inc. 1984, 2011, license no. AXAP012D837210AR-7). The results were presented as arithmetic means (M), �� standard deviations (�� SD), and the normality of their distributions was verified. Mean values of analyzed parameters determined in athletes paddling on the right and left side of a canoe were compared using ANOVA. Post-hoc tests were used for detailed comparisons of parameters with normal distributions. Due to high variability in the sample size of canoeists paddling on the right or the left side, the Tukey test for unequal samples was used as a post-hoc test. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used for comparisons of variables with non-normal distribution.
Additionally, Pearson��s and Spearman��s coefficients of correlation were calculated between the asymmetry coefficients and paddling speed. Statistical GSK-3 significance was defined as p<0.05. Results No significant differences were observed between mean V of right- and left-paddling athletes (Table 1). The only observed significant difference in spinal mobility pertained to the maximal left rotation of the cervical spine (CTL): it was lower in right-sided paddlers (RP) than in left-sided paddlers (LP), 60.38 and 67.7, respectively, for RP and LP left side of the canoe.