This ecological niche is unique and no other animal species can ��-Nicotinamide price substitute the yak at such harsh environments (i.e. high altitude with lower oxygen levels and freezing temperatures in the winter). Research on the yak
production system is therefore highly strategic and in recent years, adaptations of physiology, nitrogen and energy metabolism, histological variations, and foraging behavior selleck inhibitor to the harsh forage environment have been revealed [3–8]. However, research focusing on the rumen microbiota of the yak, has been limited until now. Based upon the Libshuff analysis, the current study has shown that the community structure of the methanogens resident in the yak is significantly different (p<0.0001) from that of cattle, with only 15 of the 95 OTUs shared between the two libraries. The rumen is a unique environment which inhabits billions of microorganisms, including bacteria, methanogenic archaea, protozoa and fungi. Common species of methanogens isolated from rumen belong to the genera, Methanobrevibacter, Methanomicrobium, Methanobacterium and Methanosarcina[15, 16]. In the present study, the majority of methanogen sequences were very distantly related to Methanomassiliicoccus luminyensis (Table 1) and were found to belong to the Thermoplasmatales-affiliated Lineage C, a group of uncultivated and uncharacterized rumen archaea that is a distantly related
sister group to the order Thermoplasmatales (Figures 1). Tajima et al  also reported the methanogen JQ1 diversity of the bovine rumen exhibited high degrees of similarity to uncultured archaea which were distantly related to the order Thermoplasmatales. Wright et al  also ROS1 reported that 18 of 26 unique sequences from Australia sheep had 72 to 75% identity to Thermoplasmatales and were considered as
predominant sequences in the rumen. In present study, within the TALC clade, few unique OTUs from yak and cattle libraries were highly related to the clones M1and M2 from Holstein cattle in Japan , clones CSIRO 1.04 and CSIRO 1.33 from sheep in Western Australia , and clones vadin CA11 and vadin DC79 from a wine anaerobic digester in France . The distribution of 16S rRNA gene sequences within the orders of Methanobacteriales and Methanomicrobiales also varied between yak and cattle clone libraries. From the results, it was apparent that a greater percentage of the methanogen population from the orders of Methanobacteriales (21.5% vs 12.4%) and Methanomicrobiales (9.8% vs 0.96%) were found in the rumen of cattle as compared to the yak. Zhou et al  studied the methanogen diversity in cattle with different feed efficiencies and reported that differences at the strain and genotype levels of metagenomic ecology were found to be associated with feed efficiency in the host regardless of the population of methanogens.