This target level is based on early observations in haemophilia A

This target level is based on early observations in haemophilia A that joint bleeds are less frequent in patients with moderate haemophilia than in those with

severe disease. PK calculations for FVIII are useful to design optimal dosing schedules to achieve this target [23, 24]. However, the clinical significance of maintaining a 1% trough level is widely debated, and such evidence that does exist is mainly applicable to FVIII deficiency [25]. Furthermore, baseline factor levels are not the only determinants of bleeding phenotype in haemophilia, and the severity and frequency of bleeding may be different for people with haemophilia with the same factor activity [26]. There is therefore a need to strike a balance

between clinical and PK endpoints in the evaluation of clinical efficacy Selleckchem Ensartinib in the real-life clinical setting, particularly in people with haemophilia B for whom limited disease-specific data exist. In people with haemophilia, bleeding frequency is considered a key clinical indicator of the efficacy of a treatment regimen. However, the causes of bleeding are multifactorial and bleeding frequency is dependent on multiple factors, such as physical activity (trauma), presence of target joints and the rest of the haemostatic system. As factor levels cannot always predict bleeding frequency, CT99021 supplier other methods of predicting bleeding risk have been developed, such as the Haemophilia Severity Score (HSS) [27], which includes the annual joint bleeding rate, annual factor consumption and World Federation of Hemophila (WFH) orthopaedic score in its assessment.

Vyas and colleagues examined clinical data for 178 haemophilia patients without inhibitors in a single US centre and documented the differing symptomatology of haemophilia patients [haemophilia A (n = 139), haemophilia B (n = 39)] see more using the HSS. They found widespread variability in the HSS values of patients with the same baseline factor activity, demonstrating the heterogeneity of haemophilia phenotype [28]. Data from a single-centre cohort study of 171 patients with severe haemophilia A and B in The Netherlands demonstrated the importance of clinical issues in determining phenotype. They found that age at first joint bleed was an indicator of bleeding pattern, as assessed by the Pettersson score, a radiologic classification of haemophilic arthropathy [29]. Subjects who experienced their first joint bleed at an early age had demonstrated consistently higher annual clotting factor consumption compared with those experiencing their first joint bleed later in life (P < 0.01; 95% confidence interval: −221 to −134 IU kg−1 year−1) [30]. Large variations in rates of clotting factor concentrate (CFC) consumption in patients with the same diagnosis are also widely observed.

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