This unspecific pre-activation of intracellular pathways represents the molecular basis of VEGF resistance in diabetes mellitus.”
“Activation of innate and acquired immune responses, which can be induced by infection, inflammation, or tissue injury, may impact
the development Elafibranor mw of autoimmunity. Although stimulation of cells by double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) has been shown to activate immune responses, the role of self-genomic DNA fragments released in the context of sterile cellular injury is not well understood. Using cultured thyroid cells, we show that cell injury prompts the release of genomic DNA into the cytosol, which is associated with the production of type I interferons, inflammatory cytokines, and chemokines. Molecules necessary for antigen processing and presentation to lymphocytes are also induced in thyroid cells by injury. dsDNA strongly suppressed the expression of sodium/iodide symporter and radio-iodine uptake. To identify molecules responsible for sensing cytosolic dsDNA, we directly identified the cellular proteins that bound a dsDNA Sepharose column by mass spectrometry. Our analysis identified histone H2B, which was previously demonstrated to be an essential factor that
mediates the activation of innate C59 Wnt in vitro immunity induced by dsDNA. Knock down of histone H2B using specific small interfering RNA abolished cell injury-induced innate immune activation and increased sodium/iodide symporter expression. These results indicate that genomic DNA fragments released by cell injury are recognized by extrachromosomal histone H2B, which results in the activation of genes involved in both innate and acquired immune responses in thyroid cells and suppression of thyroid function. These results suggest that sterile thyroid injury, in the absence of infection, may be sufficient to trigger autoimmune reaction and to induce thyroid dysfunction. (Endocrinology
152: 1702-1712, 2011)”
“Two imidazolate-metal based rhombic dodecahedra (termed MOP-100 and MOP-101) were designed and prepared from [(NH(3))(4)Pd(NO(3))(2)] Cell Cycle inhibitor and hydrogen tetrakis(1-imidazolyl)borate or hydrogen tetrakis(4-methyl-1-imidazolyl)borate in a concentrated ammonium hydroxide solution at 85 degrees C. Both rhombic dodecahedra show unusual chemical stability in acidic and basic solutions as well as common organic solvents. Permanent porosity was examined by gas adsorption studies. From the N(2), isotherm for MOP-101, the Langmuir and BET surface areas of MOP-101 were calculated to be 350 and 280 m(2) g(-1), respectively. Anion exchange experiments confirmed the internal cavities of such polyhedra are accessible.