To help with the screening of the A/H1N1pdm virus, rRT-PCR assays were also developed for detecting human seasonal A/H1N1 (H1 rRT-PCR assay) and A/H3N2 influenza viruses (H3 rRT-PCR assay). H1pdm, S63845 chemical structure H1, and H3 rRT-PCR assays were evaluated using in vitro-transcribed control RNA, isolated viruses,
and other respiratory pathogenic viruses, and were shown to have high sensitivity, good linearity (R(2) = 0.99), and high specificity. In addition, the improved H1pdm rRT-PCR assay could detect two viral strains of A/H1N1pdm, namely, A/Aichi/472/2009 (H1N1)pdm and A/Sakai/89/2009 (H1N1)pdm, which have mutation(s) in the probe-binding region of the hemagglutinin gene, without loss of sensitivity. Using the three rRT-PCR assays developed, PCI-34051 manufacturer 90 clinical specimens collected between May and October 2009 were then tested. Of these, 26, 20, and 2 samples were identified as positive for A/H1pdm, A/H3, and A/H1, respectively, while 42 samples were negative for influenza A viruses. The present results suggest that these highly sensitive and specific H1pdm, H1, and H3 rRT-PCR assays are useful not only for diagnosing influenza viruses,
but also for the surveillance of influenza viruses. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience. The neural systems underlying the sensory component of pain have been studied extensively, but we are only beginning to understand those underlying the affective component of pain. Previously, we showed the pivotal role of noradrenergic transmission in the ventral part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (vENST) in the negative
affective component of pain using a conditioned place paradigm. In this study, we examined the effect of the local administration of clonidine, an alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist, into the vBNST on noradrenaline release and on conditioned place aversion (CPA) induced by an intraplantar formalin injection in male Sprague-Dawley rats. In vivo microdialysis showed that the formalin-induced increase in the extracellular noradrenaline level within the vBNST was significantly suppressed by clonidine (100 mu M) perfusion through a microdialysis probe. Bilateral intra-vBNST injections of clonidine (1 and 10 nmol/side) dose-dependently attenuated formalin-induced CPA without reducing nociceptive behaviors. These results suggest that clonidine inhibits noradrenaline release by acting on alpha(2)-adrenoceptors located in the vENST and thereby attenuates pain-induced aversion. alpha(2)-adrenoceptors in the vENST play a pivotal role in the regulation of negative affective, but not the sensory, component of pain. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.