Two observers undertook a prospective independent evaluation of c

Two observers undertook a prospective independent evaluation of central lower fornix depth in a heterogeneous cohort of patients with clinically normal and abnormal conjunctival fornices both subjectively and by using the FDM (in mm). Upper central fornix depth was also measured. Agreement was assessed using Bland-Altman plots.\n\nResults Fifty-one eyes were evaluated. There was 100% intraobserver agreement to within 1 mm for each observer for lower

fornix measurement. The mean difference in fornix depth loss using the FDM between observer 1 and 2 was 1.19%, with 95% confidence of agreement (+/- 2SD) of -15% to +20%. In total, 86% (44/51) of measurements taken by the two observers agreed to within 10% of total lower fornix depth (ie, +/- 1 mm) versus only 63% (32/51) of the subjective measurements. Mean upper fornix difference was 0.57 mm, with 95% confidence of agreement of between -2 and +3 mm.\n\nConclusions selleck chemicals llc This custom-designed FDM is well tolerated by patients and shows low intraobserver and interobserver variability. This enables repeatable and reproducible measurement of upper and lower fornix depths, facilitating improved rates of detection and better monitoring of progression of conjunctival scarring.”
“Genetic variants predicted

to seriously disrupt the function of human protein-coding genes so-called loss-of-function (LOF) variants-have traditionally been viewed in the context of severe Mendelian disease. However, recent large-scale sequencing and genotyping projects have revealed a surprisingly large number of GS-7977 purchase these variants in the genomes of apparently healthy individuals at least 100 per genome, including more than 30 in a homozygous state suggesting a previously unappreciated level of variation in functional gene content between selleck chemical humans. These variants are mostly found at low frequency, suggesting that they are enriched for mildly

deleterious polymorphisms suppressed by negative natural selection, and thus represent an attractive set of candidate variants for complex disease susceptibility. However, they are also enriched for sequencing and annotation artefacts, so overall present serious challenges for clinical sequencing projects seeking to identify severe disease genes amidst the ‘noise’ of technical error and benign genetic polymorphism. Systematic, high-quality catalogues of LOF variants present in the genomes of healthy individuals, built from the output of large-scale sequencing studies such as the 1000 Genomes Project, will help to distinguish between benign and disease-causing LOF variants, and will provide valuable resources for clinical genomics.”
“Methadone, an opioid analgesic, is used clinically in pain therapy as well as for substitution therapy in opioid addiction. It has a large interindividual variability in response and a narrow therapeutic index.

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