Undoubtedly, the laboratory mouse has proven to be an invaluable

Undoubtedly, the laboratory mouse has proven to be an invaluable model for biological research and most of what we know today about mammalian biology is derived from research carried out with Mus musculus. Nonetheless, to reject other animal models is to ignore the

need to address evolutionary divergence among mammals by studying biology across an array of genotypes. Moreover, the opportunity to exploit unique biological models or intriguing insights can be squandered. Clarity about the nature of immunologic tolerance was developed because Owen and Medawar capitalized on the unique properties of the placental vasculature of twin calves. Rowson’s frustrations with uterine infections in embryo transfer recipients gave impetus to his fruitful ABT-199 in vivo studies that established progesterone as a key hormone regulating uterine immunity. The papers in this special issue of the American Journal of Reproductive Immunology highlight additional examples whereby farm animals are being used to develop

concepts pertinent to a wide range of mammalian species. Domestic farm animals are not the only mammalian species that can make useful research models, of course, but they offer advantages of availability, ease of handling, cost, and a well-described biology and husbandry. When Medawar was struck with the idea of using the calf in his research, he RG7204 order turned to colleagues at the Animal Breeding and Genetics Research Organization in Edinburgh. Today, unfortunately, the infrastructure for conducting farm animal research is eroding.21,22 For example,

the number of scientist years working in animal production or protection in the United States declined 22% from 1985 to 2006 and doctorates awarded in the animal sciences in the United States declined by 30% from 1985 to 2004. An increase in selleck products investments in basic research using farm animals will have a positive impact not only on agricultural productivity but on understanding mammalian biology and enhancing human health. During the initial preparation for this paper, I was fortunate enough to attend the celebrations surrounding the 100th Anniversary of the Dept. of Genetics at the University of Florida. In the course of the event, I heard details of the contributions of Ray Owen to the idea of immunologic tolerance that I was unaware of previously. Medawar had acknowledged his debt to Owen in his Nobel Lecture but, until I heard the details in Madison, I knew little about Owen or his work. I acknowledge Millard Susman, James Crow and Ray Owen for sharing images and information about this important time in reproductive immunology. “
“This study investigated whether angiotensin II type 1 receptor agonistic autoantibodies (AT1-AAs) mediate the increased release of soluble endoglin (sEng) in women with preeclampsia. Serum samples were obtained from women with normal pregnancies or with preeclampsia.

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