Unfortunately, it was not possible to recruit non-coeliac DQ2-pos

Unfortunately, it was not possible to recruit non-coeliac DQ2-positive control individuals who had not been exposed previously to gluten for 2–3 years, although these would have been the ideal controls in our study population. Additional

studies involving a larger number of patients are required to ascertain the specificity and sensitivity of the in-vivo gluten challenge, in order to assess its potential suitability as a diagnostic tool, as investigated in a recent study [16]. To this purpose, it would be interesting to monitor the reactiveness of small children at the early stage of CD, or in those with ‘potential’ CD, as well as in first-degree relatives with the highest risk of cAMP inhibitor developing the disease [17]. In conclusion, in the present study we replicated successfully Kinase Inhibitor Library the in-vivo gluten challenge approach in a cohort of 14 adolescent Italian CD patients. The short-term wheat challenge proved to be a reproducible tool to monitor the immune response to gluten. Assay replication, as well as reproducibility, represent crucial prerequisites in view of a potential application of the short-term oral challenge in a clinical setting. The design

of clinical trials aimed to evaluate novel therapeutic drugs, or the safety of alternative cereals, could benefit greatly by this non-invasive short-term procedure. The technical assistance of Dr Patrizia Iardino of Department of Laboratory Medicine, Second University of Naples (SUN) for

anti-tTG determinations is greatly acknowledged. We are extremely grateful to Dr Robert Anderson for constructive and helpful discussion. This study was supported partially by a research grant from the either Italian Celiac Association (AIC). The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose. “
“Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which are a family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), are involved critically in the generation and regulation of innate immunity as well as initiation of subsequent adaptive immune responses. However, recent research results showed that different subsets of T cells express certain types of TLRs during development and activation stages. Importantly, TLRs participate in the direct regulation of adaptive immune response, possibly as co-stimulatory molecules. In this review we summarize recent studies about the novel regulation of TLRs on the homeostasis and immunity of different T cell subtypes including CD4+CD25+T regulatory cells (Treg) and interleukin (IL)-17-producing CD4+T cells (T helper type 17). The direct involvement of TLRs in T cell-mediated immunity prompted us to reconsider the role of TLRs in the occurrence of autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases and graft rejection. The important effects of TLRs in T cell-intrinsic components also prompt us to explore novel vaccine adjuvants for modifying desired immune responses in an efficient way.

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