We estimate the effects of for profit market share in two ways, o

We estimate the effects of for profit market share in two ways, on the provision of medical services and on operating margins at the three types of hospitals. We find that nonprofit hospitals’ medical service provision systematically varies by market mix. We find no significant effect of market mix on the operating margins of nonprofit hospitals, but find that for-profit hospitals have higher GW-572016 in vivo margins in markets with more for-profits. These results fit best with theories in which hospitals maximize their own output. (C) 2009

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“Sensory ganglia comprise functional units built up by neurons and satellite glial cells (SGCs). In www.selleckchem.com/products/AC-220.html animal species there was proven the presence of neuronoglial progenitor cells in adult samples. Such neural crest-derived progenitors were found in immunohistochemistry (IHC). These findings were not previously documented in transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was thus aimed to assess in TEM if cells of the human adult trigeminal ganglion indeed have ultrastructural features to qualify for a progenitor, or quiescent phenotype. Trigeminal ganglia were obtained from fifteen adult donor cadavers. In TEM, cells with heterochromatic nuclei, a pancytoplasmic content of free ribosomes, few perinuclear mitochondria, poor developed endoplasmic reticulum, lack of Golgi complexes and membrane

trafficking specializations, were found included in the neuronal envelopes built-up by SGCs. The ultrastructural pattern was strongly

suggestive for these cells being quiescent progenitors. However, further experiments should correlate the morphologic and immune phenotypes of such cells.”
“A conformational conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) is now recognized as the causal event of fatal neurodegenerative disorders, known as prion diseases. In spite of long-lasting see more efforts, however, the physiological role of PrP(C) remains unclear. It has been reported that PrP(C) is expressed in various areas of the olfactory system, including the olfactory epithelium, but its precise localization in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) is still debated. Here, using immunohistochemistry tools, we have reinvestigated the expression and localization of PrP(C) in the olfactory epithelium of adult congenic mice expressing different PrP(C) amounts, that is, wild-type, PrP-knockout, and transgenic PrP(C)-overexpressing animals. We found that PrP(C) was expressed in OSNs, in which, however, it was unevenly distributed, being detectable at low levels in cell bodies, dendrites and apical layer, and more abundantly in axons. We also studied the involvement of PrP(C) in the response of the olfactory epithelium to odorants, by comparing the electro-olfactograms of the 3 mouse lines subjected to different stimulation protocols.

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