“We investigated the development
of the other-race effect “ORE” in a longitudinal this website sample of 3-, 6-, and 9-month-old Caucasian infants. Previous research using cross-sectional samples has shown an unstable ORE at 3 months, an increase at 6 months and full development at 9 months. In Experiment 1, we tested whether 9-month-olds showed the ORE with Caucasian and African faces. As expected, the 9-month-olds discriminated faces within their own ethnicity (Caucasian) but not within the unfamiliar ethnicity (African). In months. In Experiment 2, we longitudinally tested infants at 3, 6, and 9 months by presenting either the Caucasian or the African faces used in Experiment 1. In contrast to previous cross-sectional studies and Experiment 1, we found that infants discriminated between all stimuli. Hence, we did not find the ORE in this longitudinal study even at 9 months. We assume that the infants in our longitudinal study showed no ORE because of previous repetitive exposure to African faces at 3 and
6 months. We argue that only a few presentations of faces from other ethnic categories sufficiently slow the development of the ORE. selleck inhibitor “
“Reduced responsiveness to joint attention (RJA), as assessed by the Early Social Communication Scales (ESCS), is predictive of both subsequent language difficulties and autism diagnosis. Eye-tracking measurement of RJA is a promising prognostic tool because it
is highly precise and standardized. However, the construct validity of eye-tracking assessments of RJA has not been established. By comparing RJA an eye-tracking paradigm to responsiveness to joint attention during the ESCS, the current study evaluated the construct validity of an eye-tracking assessment of RJA for 18-month-old infant siblings of children with autism. Relations between measures of RJA and concurrent language skills and autistic symptomatology were assessed. Correlations between measures of ESCS RJA and eye-tracking RJA were statistically significant, but few relations between either ESCS or eye-tracking assessments of RJA and language or symptoms were observed. This study establishes the construct validity of eye-tracking assessments of RJA. “
“We used eye tracking to examine 4.5- to 12.5-month-old infants’ (N = 92) Leukocyte receptor tyrosine kinase eye movements during 3-s presentations of upright and inverted faces. Scanning of inverted faces was statistically indistinguishable at 4.5, 6.5, 8, and 12.5 months of age; at each of these ages, infants disproportionately scanned the region containing the eyes. Scanning of upright faces changed over this age range. When viewing upright faces, 4.5-month-old and 6.5-month-old infants focused disproportionately on the region containing the eyes, whereas 12.5-month-old and 8-month-old infants distributed looking more broadly, scanning more of the internal area of the faces.