We show that resident γδ

T cells are an early, innate-lik

We show that resident γδ

T cells are an early, innate-like source of IL-17 and that γδ T cells amplify Th17 responses and exacerbate colitis development. Moreover, we also demonstrate that Foxp3+ TREG cells also suppress the expansion and cytokine-producing potential of resident γδ T cells at an early stage of colitis development. These findings will increase our understanding of TREG cell-mediated control of bacterially driven mucosal inflammation and may enable us to design novel approaches to potentiate TREG-cell function and consequential tolerance induction in various chronic inflammatory disorders. WT, TCR-β−/− and RAG2−/− B6 selleckchem mice were obtained from Taconic Laboratories, while GFP transgenic B6 (pUbi-GFPtg) mice were provided by Dr. Schaefer 56. All mice were generally used at 6–10 wk of age. Mice were housed and bred under specific pathogen-free conditions according to institutional guidelines at McGill University (animal use protocol ♯4715). For in vivo adoptive transfer, CD4+CD25+

(TREG), CD4+CD25− (TEFF), CD4+ (total) and γδ TCR+ T-cell subsets from appropriate mice were purified from a pool of splenocytes and LN cells using the autoMACS cell sorter (Miltenyi Biotec) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. Briefly, CD4+CD25+ T-cell fraction (∼90% purity) was obtained by positive selection for CD25. The remaining cells were used to obtain CD4+CD25− TEFF fraction (>93% purity) by positive selection for CD4. CD4+ and γδ TCR+ T-cell subsets (>93 and > 90% purity, respectively) Roxadustat price were obtained by positive selection for CD4 or γδ TCR. For in vitro suppression assays, T-cell subsets were isolated using a FACSAria™ Cell

Sorter with a purity > 98%. CD4+CD25− TEFF or CD4+CD25+ TREG cells were sorted from WT B6. CD3+γδ TCR+ T cells were sorted form TCR-β−/− mice. MACS purified CD4+CD25− TEFF (1.3×106), a mixture of CD4+CD25+ TREG (0.2×106) and CD4+CD25− TEFF Mirabegron (1.3×106) T cells, and (0.7×106) γδ T cells from GFP-Tg or WT donor mice were intravenously transferred into TCR-β−/− or RAG2−/− recipient mice. Individual body weight, as an indicator of disease incidence, was monitored and compared with body weight at the start point. Colonic tissues were collected from recipient mice and either directly mounted in optimum cutting temperature compound or fixed in 10% paraformaldehyde followed by paraffin embedding. Sections of 10 μm for frozen and 6 μm for paraffin embedded tissues were made, subjected to hematoxylin/eosin staining and analyzed by a pathologist giving the score from 0–4 based on previously described criteria 57, 58. In order to isolate lymphocytes from LP, a modified protocol from 59 was used. Briefly, colonic tissues from recipient mice were isolated, washed with PBS and cut into pieces.

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