We speculate that the induction of GABA receptor signaling could

We speculate that the induction of GABA receptor signaling could represent a novel strategy to enhance neural versus glial specification from these cells through genetic and epigenetic mechanisms.

(C) 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The optimization of the enzymatic transesterification in solvent-free medium (SFM) of krill oil with selected phenolic acids (PAs), using two immobilized lipases, was investigated. The use of Novozym 435 with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid resulted in the highest bioconversion yield (BY). The central composite rotatable design was used to evaluate the effects of the PA PLX4032 concentration (PAC) and lipase concentration (LC) as well as the agitation speed (AS) on the BY of phenolic lipids. The initial findings indicated that the stationary point was a saddle point. To overcome this saddle point, sequential experiments have been carried out at fixed PAC, with LC and AS as the two independent variables. For the models with PAC, fixed at 10 and 20 mM, the results revealed that LC had a significant quadratic effect (P < 0.05) on the %BY. whereas a significant linear effect was only obtained at PAC fixed at 20 mM. The AS had a significant quadratic effect (P < 0.05) on the %BY only

for the model with PAC fixed at 10mM. At fixed PAC of 20 mM, the response surface model predicted a BY of 75%, using a LC of 62 mg/mL and an AS of 154 rpm. ERK pathway inhibitors The subsequent verification experiment PXD101 chemical structure carried out under these conditions confirmed

the validity of the prediction. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Object. Microsurgical removal is the preferred treatment for most deep-seated, intraaxial tumors in the pediatric population. The feasibility of surgery as an option has improved with advances in surgical technology and technique. Tubular retractors disperse retraction forces over a greater surface area than do conventional retractors, which can lower the risk of ischemic complications. The authors describe their experience utilizing a new tubular retractor system specifically designed for cranial applications in conjunction with frameless neuronavigation.\n\nMethods. The Vycor ViewSite retractor was used in 4 pediatric patients (ages 15 months and 9, 10, and 16 years) with deep-seated intraaxial tumors. The lesions included a papillary tumor of the pineal region, a low-grade astrocytoma in the occipital lobe, a dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor arising from the basal ganglia, and an intraventricular low-grade glioma. The extent of white matter damage along the surgical trajectory (based on T2 or FLAIR and diffusion restriction/apparent diffusion coefficient signals) and the extent of resection were assessed on postoperative imaging.\n\nResults.

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