When tested in a walking simulator, the crab Neohelice granulata immediately adjusts its running direction after changes in the position of the visual danger stimulus smaller than 1 degrees. Combining mass and single-cell staining with in Selleck AZD1152-HQPA vivo intracellular recording, we show that a particular class of motion-sensitive neurons of the crab’s lobula that project to the midbrain, the monostratified lobula giants type 1 (MLG1), form a system of 16 retinotopically organized elements that map the 360 degrees azimuthal space. The preference of these neurons for horizontally moving objects conforms
the visual ecology of the crab’s mudflat world. With a mean receptive field of 118 degrees, MLG1s have a large superposition among neighboring elements. Our results suggest that the MLG1 system conveys information on object position as a population vector. Such computational code can
enable the accurate directional control observed in the AP24534 solubility dmso visually guided behaviors of crabs.”
“The membrane potential is mainly maintained by the K+ concentration gradient across the cell membrane between the cytosol and the extracellular matrix. Here, we show that extracellular addition of high-molecular weight hyaluronan depolarized the membrane potential of human fibroblasts, human embryonic kidney cells (HEK), and central nervous system neurons in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas digestion of cell surface hyaluronan by hyaluronidase
https://www.selleckchem.com/products/rg-7112.html caused hyperpolarization. This effect could not be achieved by other glycosaminoglycans or hyaluronan oligosaccharides, chondroitin sulfate, and heparin which did not affect the membrane potential. Mixtures of high-molecular weight hyaluronan and bovine serum albumin had a larger depolarization effect than expected as the sum of both individual components. The different behavior of high-molecular weight hyaluronan versus hyaluronan oligosaccharides and other glycosaminoglycans can be explained by a Donnan effect combined with a steric exclusion of other molecules from the water solvated chains of high-molecular weight hyaluronan. Depolarization of the plasma membrane by hyaluronan represents an additional pathway of signal transduction to the classical CD44 signal transduction pathway, which links the extracellular matrix to intracellular metabolism. J. Cell. Biochem. 111: 858-864, 2010. (C) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“Gram-positive streptococci are non-motile, chain-forming bacteria commonly found in the normal oral and bowel flora of warm-blooded animals. Over the past decade, a proteomic approach combining 2-DE and MS has been used to systematically map the cellular, surface-associated and secreted proteins of human pathogenic streptococcal species.