, 2011), corroborating evidence from near-field electrophysiologi

, 2011), corroborating evidence from near-field electrophysiological studies (Langner & Schreiner, 1988). Given that the temporal features in the Natural Music condition were effectively removed in the Phase-Scrambled condition, reduced ISS in sub-cortical (and cortical) structures for the Natural Music > Phase-Scrambled comparison was probably due to the fact that sub-cortical temporal processing mechanisms (Baumann et al., 2011) were weakly synchronized by the Phase-Scrambled stimulus Cisplatin supplier while both spectral and temporal processing mechanisms were

more strongly synchronized for the Natural Music condition. However, the interpretation for the Natural Music > Spectrally-Rotated result is different given that the Spectrally-Rotated condition contained the full complement of spectro-temporal features: the power spectrum was altered in this control condition but was not degraded or limited in any manner. Given the conservation of both temporal and spectral features in the Spectrally-Rotated condition, we hypothesize that the temporal structure of the Natural Music condition (Levitin & Menon, 2003, 2005)

was responsible for the elevated ISS results in both sub-cortical and cortical regions relative to the control conditions. These sub-cortical Baricitinib auditory structures have historically been considered passive relays of auditory information, and therefore it is surprising to EX 527 ic50 find the strong enhancement in subcortical

ISS in the Natural Music condition relative to the Spectrally-Rotated control condition. If these sub-cortical structures serve as passive relays of auditory information, then ISS should have been comparable for all stimulus conditions. In contrast to this hypothesis, our results indicate that ISS in sub-cortical structures is driven by the musical nature of the stimulus and suggest that top-down, cortically mediated influences play an important role in synchronizing activity in auditory sub-cortical regions between subjects. This result is consistent with recent work showing that sub-cortical auditory structures are influenced by context (Chandrasekaran et al., 2009), learning (Chandrasekaran et al., 2012; Hornickel et al., 2012; Skoe & Kraus, 2012; Anderson et al., 2013) and memory (Tzounopoulos & Kraus, 2009). An important question for all sub-cortical and cortical ISS findings is which aspect(s) of musical structure are responsible for the current ISS findings. Plausible candidates include themes, cadences, chord functions, tones, accents and dynamics, tempo, and any number of combinations of these features.

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