Calculations have

been also performed for wolframite-type

Calculations have

been also performed for wolframite-type MnWO(4), which is found to have an antiferromagnetic configuration. In addition, our study reveals details of the local-atomic compression in MgWO(4) and ZnWO(4). In particular, below the transition pressure the ZnO(6) and equivalent polyhedra tend to become more regular, whereas, the WO(6) octahedra remain almost unchanged. Fitting the pressure-volume data we obtained the equation of state for the low-pressure phase of MgWO(4) and ZnWO(4). These and previous results on MnWO(4) and CdWO(4) are compared with the calculations. The compressibility of wolframite-type tungstates is also systematically ATM/ATR inhibitor clinical trial discussed. Finally Raman spectroscopy measurements and lattice dynamics calculations are presented for MgWO(4). (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3380848]“
“In patients with autoimmune this website disease-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (AAHS), the clinical features may differ from hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) of other etiologies, and new criteria for AAHS have been proposed. Since bone marrow (BM) circumstances are changed according to aging, here we reviewed retrospectively

our cases with AAHS in elderly patients, including two systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), three Evans syndrome, one rheumatoid arthritis (RA), one Hashimoto thyroiditis, and one autoimmune pancreatitis. Although only two SLE patients were diagnosed as HPS by the classical criteria, the remaining patients except one RA met the criteria for AAHS. Seven patients except one SLE patient showed good response to therapy and

demonstrated positive autoantibodies Liproxstatin-1 to blood cells, lower serum ferritin levels, and increased erythroblastic islands in the BM. We consider the diagnosis of AAHS should be carefully made when macrophages phagocytosing blood cells are observed in BM smear without hyperferritinemia in elderly patients with autoimmune diseases.”
“In this study we investigated traps in InSb/SiOx/Metal structure. In particular, emphasis was given to various methods of charging and discharging the interfaces and SiOx layers by thermal-bias-stress. It is shown that the widely used capacitance-voltage profiling is insensitive to trap energies. Thus additional, complementary methods, such as thermally stimulated discharge were adopted and used to deepen the understanding. It is proposed that the traps in the passivation layer are charged by dc leakage current, and that the distribution of trap energies is not uniform. Furthermore, we report here methods that were developed to charge and discharge specific trap levels selectively. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3373627]“
“To determine the frequency of non-infectious lupus pericarditis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) seen in the Yaound, Central and General Hospitals.

5 mol % Y(2)O(3)-doped, fully stabilized zirconia (8YSZ and 9 5YS

5 mol % Y(2)O(3)-doped, fully stabilized zirconia (8YSZ and 9.5YSZ) targets. As a consequence of the intrinsic material brittleness, fully stabilized YSZ coatings deposited by PLD contained particles for all tested conditions. Lower doped partially stabilized zirconia (3YSZ) exhibits a superior fracture toughness attributed to a laser-induced partial transition to the monoclinic phase, detected by Raman spectroscopy, which enables the deposition of particle-free dense thin films by conventional PLD using nanosecond-UV laser radiation at moderate fluences

of 1.2-1.5 J/cm(2). The ablation dynamics of ultrashort laser pulses selleck inhibitor differ fundamentally from the nanosecond regime as evidenced, e.g., by time-resolved shadowgraphy and light scattering experiments. Femtosecond pulses prevent the exfoliation of micron-sized fragments but result invariably in a pronounced ejection of submicron particles. The resulting PLD coatings are porous and reveal

a large surface roughness as they consist of an agglomeration of nanoparticles. Femtosecond-NIR pulses provide a factor of 2.5-10 higher material removal rates compared to nanosecond- and femtosecond-UV pulses. buy ON-01910 The ablation metrics, i.e., threshold fluence and effective absorptivity, mainly depend on the laser wavelength while the pulse duration, target microstructure, and dopant level are of minor importance. Evidence is presented

that incubation effects play a significant role in nanosecond- and femtosecond-laser ablations of YSZ enabling material removal at comparatively low fluences for sub-bandgap photon energies.”
“Silkworm was used in the sericulture industry and also processed for food sources in some of Asian countries. In previous studies, it was reported that the 30K protein in silkworm, Bombyx mori hemolymph inhibited animal cell apoptosis. In this work, the antioxidative function of silkworm hemolymph was investigated using its protein-free extract. H2O2-induced ROS and O-2(center dot-) were efficiently scavenged in Chinese hamster ovary cells when the culture medium was supplemented with silkworm hemolymph. The hemolymph extract prepared by deproteinization through ethanol precipitation completely BIX 01294 nmr scavenged DPPH radicals (IC50 = 0.025 mg/mL). When the extract was supplemented with protein-free medium, oxidative damage to mitochondria was efficiently diminished with the maintenance of the mitochondrial membrane potential. Lutein was identified as the major antioxidative constituents in the extract (52.06 mu g/mg).”
“Nylon 12 was successfully synthesized in a twin-screw extruder via the anionic ring-opening polymerization of lauryllactam (LL). Maleated low-density polyethylene (LDPE-MAH) was added to improve the mechanical properties of nylon 12.

Fourteen dogs had invasion of the caudal vena cava; of these tumo

Fourteen dogs had invasion of the caudal vena cava; of these tumors, 7 were locally invasive and 7 were extensively invasive. Risk factors for poor short-term survival (death within 14 days following surgery) were vena caval invasion, extent of invasion, pheochromocytoma, intraoperative transfusion, and postoperative factors including disseminated intravascular coagulation, pancreatitis, hypotension, hypoxemia, and renal failure. Multivariate

analysis of risk factors for poor short-term survival revealed that extensive invasion was the most important factor. Regardless of extent of invasion or tumor type, long-term survival was possible.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Invasion of the caudal vena cava, particularly tumor thrombus

extension beyond the hepatic hilus, was associated with a higher postoperative mortality rate, but did not affect long-term prognosis in dogs undergoing adrenalectomy because www.selleckchem.com/products/JNJ-26481585.html of an adrenal gland tumor.”
“First principle density functional theory calculations for radially deformed and defective single wall (8,0) carbon nanotube are reported. Structural changes in terms of radial cross-sectional geometry and bond length changes are studied for different values of the applied strain for all types of investigated deformations and defects. Various characteristic deformation and defect energies are shown as a function SN-38 cell line of the applied deformation. The nonlinear elastic properties of the radially deformed and defective (8,0) nanotube are also investigated in terms of the strain energy and applied force.”
“A significant proportion of women diagnosed with breast cancer are over the age of 70 years and there is evidence that these patients frequently do not receive standard treatments, including surgical procedures and adjuvant therapies, which would be routine practice in younger age groups. The factors underlying this may include the physiological effects of ageing, differences in the biology and stage of the tumour at presentation, patient co-morbidities and patient and clinician preferences. The interaction of all these factors needs to be considered when

individualising treatment plans for patients. For some patients this will need to be undertaken in the context of an extended multidisciplinary team setting with additional input from geriatricians, selleckchem in addition to surgeons and oncologists, in defining a treatment plan. Little is known about the preferences of older patients in their choice of surgical treatment for breast cancer and further research is required to increase the evidence base for the rational management of older women with breast cancer. Reed, M. W. R. et al. (2009). Clinical Oncology 21, 103-110 (C) 2008 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: We sought to assess predictors of appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy in patients receiving primary prevention ICDs.

Indirect treatment comparisons were conducted to compare ADFs and

Indirect treatment comparisons were conducted to compare ADFs and non-ADFs.

ResultsSummary estimates for standardized DMCPI and for standardized DSPID indicated that ADFs and non-ADFs showed significantly small molecule library screening greater efficacy than placebo in reducing pain intensity. Indirect

analyses assessing the efficacy outcomes between ADFs and non-ADFs indicated that they were not significantly different (standardized DMCPI [0.39 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.00-0.76]; standardized DSPID [-0.22 95% CI -0.74 to 0.30]). ADFs and non-ADFs both were associated with higher odds of AEs than placebo. Odds ratios from indirect analyses comparing AEs for ADFs vs non-ADFs

were not significant (nausea, 0.87 [0.24-3.12]; vomiting, 1.54 [0.40-5.97]; dizziness/vertigo, 0.61 [0.21-1.76]; headache, 1.42 [0.57-3.53]; somnolence/drowsiness, 0.47 [0.09-2.58]; constipation, 0.64 [0.28-1.49]; pruritus 0.41 [0.05-3.51]).

ConclusionADFs and non-ADFs had comparable selleck chemical efficacy and safety profiles, while both were more efficacious than placebo in reducing pain intensity.”
“The mite Varroa destructor is an ectoparasite that is considered a major pest for beekeeping with European honey bees. However, Africanized bee colonies are less threatened by this ectoparasite, because infestation levels remain low in these bees. The low reproductive ability of female mites of the Japanese biotype (J), introduced to Brazil early in the 1970s was initially considered the main factor for the lack of virulence of this parasite

on Africanized bees. In other regions of the world where the Korean (K) biotype of this mite was introduced, there have been serious problems with Varroa due to the high reproductive potential of the mite. However, a significant increase in the reproductive rate of females of Varroa in Brazil has been recently demonstrated; the cause could be a change in the type of Varroa SCH 900776 chemical structure in the bee colonies. We evaluated the prevalence of haplotypes J and K in mite samples collected from the State of Santa Catarina and from the island of Fernando de Noronha in the State of Pernambuco. The analysis of the mitochondrial genome (PCR + RFLP) revealed haplotype K in all samples from Santa Catarina and haplotype J in all samples from Fernando de Noronha. The analysis of microsatellites (nuclear genome) in bees from Fernando de Noronha showed only the specific alleles of haplotype J, while in bees from Santa Catarina, these alleles were found in only 2.8% of the samples. The high frequency of individuals with Korean genetic material is probably to the reason for the current high reproductive capacity of the mite V. destructor recorded in Santa Catarina.”
“Objective.

Conclusions: Chondromalacia patellae cannot be diagnosed on the b

Conclusions: Chondromalacia patellae cannot be diagnosed on the basis of symptoms or with current physical examination methods. The present study demonstrated no correlation between the severity of chondromalacia patellae and the clinical symptoms of anterior knee pain syndrome.

Thus, symptoms of anterior knee pain syndrome should not be used as an indication for knee arthroscopy. The sensitivity of 1.0-T magnetic resonance imaging was low for grade-I lesions but considerably higher for more severe (grade-II, Ill, or IV) lesions. Magnetic resonance imaging may be considered an accurate diagnostic tool for identification buy SBI-0206965 of more severe cases of chondromalacia patellae.”
“Oxygen derivatives that comprise the large family of reactive oxygen species (ROS)

are actively involved in placental biology. They are generated at the maternal-fetal interface at the level of decidual, trophoblast and mesenchymal components. In normal conditions, ROS produced in low concentrations participate in different functions as MLN8237 ic50 signalling molecules, regulating activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors and protein kinases involved in cell survival, proliferation and apoptosis, hence much of cell functioning. Physiological ROS generation is also associated with such defence mechanisms as phagocytosis and microbiocidal activities. In mice, particularly but not exclusively, trophoblast cells phagocytose intensively during implantation and post-implantation periods and express enzymic machinery to address a ROS-producing response to changes in the environment. The cells directly associated with ROS production are trophoblast giant cells, which mediate each and every relationship with the maternal organism. In this review, the production of ROS by the implanting mouse trophoblast AS1842856 research buy is discussed, focusing on NADPH oxidase expression, regulatory mechanisms and similarities with NOX2 from phagocytes. Some of the current controversies

are assessed by attempting to integrate data from studies in human trophoblast and mouse models. (C) 2012, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Internal rotation contracture of the shoulder is common in children with neonatal brachial plexus palsy. A long-standing contracture may cause osseous deformities in the developing shoulder. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between osseous deformities of the glenohumeral joint and structural differences due to muscle denervation in the rotator cuff muscles.

Methods: One hundred and two children with residual neonatal brachial plexus palsy underwent magnetic resonance imaging of both shoulders. The glenoid version and posterior, medial, and superior subluxation of the humeral head were measured.

0% for normal subjects and 29 9% for patients with OSA The group

0% for normal subjects and 29.9% for patients with OSA. The groups showed a small and identical improvement over the trial period in the test score, of 1.7% (p = 0.01 and p = 0.03 for the normal and OSA groups, respectively). The group with OSA experienced a drop in ESS of 7.5 (SD 5.5) points following treatment. Conclusion: The small and identical improvement in both groups suggests only a similar learning effect rather than any improvement due to reduced sleepiness. (C) 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“The possible application of continuous scanning thermal lens microscopy (TLM) as alternative www.selleckchem.com/products/azd4547.html online biofilm observation method is studied. As biofilm is a heterogeneous sample, the influence of spatially limited thermal

flow at the sample heterogeneities and the biofilm-environment border has to be considered. The influence of the edges on the lateral resolution with respect to scanning velocity during continuous BMN 673 manufacturer scanning TLM was therefore evaluated. Lateral scanning experiments on 100 nm thin gold stripes showed that the maximum scan speed can be predicted from a time constant of a lock-in amplifier and the beamwidth. Since three-dimensional mapping is needed to fully characterize the biofilm structure, depth scanning experiments with stained 4 mu m thick polystyrene samples with the

coaxial TLM setup were evaluated for signal width at full width at half maximum. Thus, a minimum step width for depth scanning of 10 mu m for observation has been acquired. A three-dimensional image of unstained biofilm grown in a flow chamber was acquired using continuous scanning TLM.”
“A multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus previously isolated from infected Bombyx mori L. larvae (BmMNPV) in Parana State, Brazil, was inoculated into B. mori larvae to examine susceptibility and cytopathology in silk gland cells. The anterior, middle and posterior silk glands were removed from the infected silkworm at different Liproxstatin-1 research buy times post-inoculation and processed for cytopathology studies by light and transmission electron microscopy. BmMNPV infection was only detected at 72 h post-inoculation in cells of the middle and posterior

silk glands. No sign of infection was found in the anterior silk gland. Cytopathological characteristics were similar to those found in other target tissues; initially, they consisted of nuclear hypertrophy and the formation of virogenic stroma (viroplasm), in which the progeny virions are produced. The virions are then enveloped and occluded in protein crystal structures, the polyhedra. After viral replication, cells undergo lysis and release a great number of BmMNPV polyhedra into the hemocoele. Histopathology showed early infection foci in regions surrounding trachea insertions, demonstrating that trachea is an infection-spreading organ in the insect body. Trachea penetrates the middle and posterior silk gland basal lamina, considered a barrier to virus, facilitating the penetration of budded virus.

Brazilian Clinical Trials: RBR-7TF6TM

RESULTS: Group

Brazilian Clinical Trials: RBR-7TF6TM.

RESULTS: Group A showed a significant increase in the initial claudication distance in the second

test compared to the first test.

CONCLUSION: RIPC increased the initial claudication distance in patients with intermittent claudication; buy Kinase Inhibitor Library however, RIPC did not affect the total walking distance of the patients.”
“The present study demonstrates the fine structure of blood-borne (monocytic) circulating cells (CCs), and their interaction with endothelial cells, in a mouse model of lung capillary injury and repair. Quantitative analysis highlights the diversity of CC profiles entering the lung, where they form contact and adhesion/fusion sites to endothelial plasmalemmal membranes, and to complexes of endothelial/basement membrane remnants, as capillary

networks reorganize over time. Temporal patterns of CC influx and efflux in the lung, changing CC phenotypes, and the range of CC interactions with endothelium, underscore the potential for a complex angiogenic/immunogenic response, as capillary networks stabilize MLN2238 and undergo expansion and growth.”
“Kyphosis is a common sequel of inadequately managed thoracolumbar fractures. This study compares between pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) and anterior corpectomy and plating (ACP) for correcting post-traumatic kyphosis. Forty-three patients with symptomatic post-traumatic kyphosis of the thoracolumbar spine were treated with PSO and prospectively followed for a minimum of 2 years. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Oswestry

Disability Index (ODI) were used to assess clinical improvement and radiographs were obtained at 2, 6, 12 and 24 months. The recorded clinical and radiological outcomes were compared to a control group of 37 patients, who were treated earlier by the same authors with ACP. The mean correction of the kyphotic angle was 29.8A degrees for the PSO group and 22A degrees for the ACP group (P = 0.001). PSO group showed significantly better improvement in the VAS score and the ODI. At final follow-up, patients reported very good satisfaction (93% in PSO vs. 81% in ACP) and good function (90% in PSO vs. 73% in ACP). Complications in the PSO CAL-101 supplier group included pulling out of screws and recurrence of deformity requiring revision and longer fixation (1 patient), and transient lower limb paraesthesia (2 patients). Recorded complications in the ACP group included an aortic injury (1 patient) that was successfully repaired, pseudarthrosis (1 patient), persistent graft donor site morbidity (3 patients), and incisional hernia (1 patient). PSO and ACP are demanding procedures. PSO seems to be equally safe but more effective than ACP for correcting post-traumatic kyphosis.”
“A major reason for dental resin composite restoration replacement is related to secondary caries promoted by acid production from bacteria including Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). We hypothesized that S.

Turkish versions of CFQ-R Child and

Parent instruments ha

Turkish versions of CFQ-R Child and

Parent instruments have demonstrated adequate reliability and validity and can be utilized in clinical trials or integrated into clinical evaluation and follow-up of Turkish children with CF.”
“Purpose: Clinical and preclinical data VX-770 concentration show a wide variability of tumour response to combined inhibition of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Differences are obvious not only between different tumour entities, but also between different combination schedules and different classes of drugs. The underlying reasons are currently not well understood.

Conclusions: In light of the disappointing results of some phase III trials on combined EGFR tyrosine kinase (TK) inhibition

and chemotherapy click here in non-small-cell lung cancer, but also of some early clinical trials on the triple combination of EGFR inhibitors and radio-chemotherapy, negative interactions between the components of the treatment cannot be ruled out. Also, there is increasing evidence for a differential activity of anti-EGFR antibodies and EGFR-TK inhibitors. Potential reasons are an immunogenic component of the cytotoxic effect of chimeric antibodies, alternative signal transduction pathways leading to acquired resistance against the drugs, different effects on tumour micromilieu or nutritional supply, differences

in pharmacokinetics and intratumoural distribution or different effects on cancer stem cells. Clarifying these potential mechanisms will require further preclinical and clinical research effort but could in future enable us to individually tailor the use of molecular targeted drugs in order to fully utilise their high potential in cancer therapy.”
“It is unknown whether the glycosaminoglycan drug sulodexide interferes with transforming growth factor-beta 1-a member of heparin-binding family and a potent regulator of human biology and diseases. Hence, a 2-week pilot Study was performed in 11 healthy men. Sulodexide was initially administered intravenously selleck chemicals in a single dose, then-orally for 12 days and-again intravenously on study completion. Initial injection had no effect on activated from of the growth factor measured in plasma after 10 and 120 min; no change was also observed after 120 min from drug ingestion On day 7. On final intravenous administration, the growth factor levels increased by almost 60% after 10 min and remained elevated; the 120-min levels directly correlated with sulodexide dosage. Baseline cytokine levels decreased during the 2-week trial by more than 50%. In conclusion, transforming growth factor-beta 1 release and likely downregulation of its expression may constitute novel pharmacological effects of sulodexide.

The authors have indicated no significant interest with commercia

The authors have indicated no significant interest with commercial supporters.”
“We have carried out an experimental study to reveal the dielectric function of SmH(x)(x=2.28,2.42,2.56,2.57) WH-4-023 cost films based on room-temperature reflectivity

for photon energies ranging from 0.05 to 6.5 eV. The derivation of the dielectric functions has been carried out using model dielectric functions as well as Kramers-Kronig analysis. It is inferred from our analysis that when the H/Sm value is increased from 2.28 to 2.57, (i) the interband transition band located in the ultraviolet region shows a redshift of about 1 eV, (ii) the relatively weak transition band located in the near-infrared region shows a reduction in intensity, and (iii) the unperturbed plasma frequency of free carriers decreases slightly. The behaviors (i), (ii), and (iii) caused by the H/Sm selleck chemical value change are thoroughly approximately the same as those observed for YH(x), suggesting that these trends are characteristic of H-M systems showing a metal-insulator transition. It was also confirmed from our structural analysis that these changes

in the dielectric function are achieved without a change in the lattice constant. The origin of this constancy in the lattice constant in our samples with different H/Sm values is discussed by assessing the T- and O-site hydrogen concentrations. The hydrogen incorporation effect is also observed in the magnitude of the unperturbed plasma frequency, about 1.7 eV, which is unexpectedly small compared to conventional metals. This characteristic can possibly be attributed to mass enhancement of mobile carriers; we obtained VX-661 nmr an effective mass of about 10m(0)

(where m(0) is the free electron mass) when the carrier density estimated from the Hall coefficient value is used.”
“The ingestion toxicity of three Lamiaceae essential oils (EOs) – Hyptis suaveolens, Rosmarinus officinalis and Lavandula angustifolia – incorporated in protein baits was evaluated against Bactrocera oleae, a worldwide pest of olive fruits. In laboratory conditions, all the tested EOs showed dose-dependent toxicity on B. oleae, with mortality rates ranging from 12% (EO concentration: 0.01% w:v) to 100% (EO concentration: 1.75% w:v). Semi-field results highlighted the toxicity of L. angustifolia and H. suaveolens EOs, which exerted more than 60% of flies mortality at a concentration of 1.75% (w:v). Gas Chromatography-Electron Impact Mass Spectrometry analyses of the three EOs showed that H. suaveolens EO was dominated by monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Oxygenated monoterpenes were the main chemical class in R. officinalis and L. angustifolia EOs. Further research is needed to evaluate the efficacy of these EOs plus food bait against the olive fruit fly in the open field.”
“BACKGROUND Periorbital hyperpigmentation (POH) presents with a dark area surrounding the eyelids.

This review aims to enunciate the principles of organ perfusion a

This review aims to enunciate the principles of organ perfusion and preservation as they relate to indication, aspects of organ protection and to highlight future developments.”
“Objective-To determine the effects of body position and extension of the neck and extremities on CT measurements of ventilated lung volume in red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans).

Design-Prospective crossover-design study.

Animals-14 adult

red-eared slider turtles.

Procedures-CT was performed on turtles in horizontal ventral recumbent and vertical left lateral recumbent, right lateral recumbent, and caudal recumbent body positions. In sedated turtles, evaluations were performed SB203580 in horizontal ventral recumbent body position with and without extension of the neck

and extremities. Lung volumes were estimated from helical CT images with commercial software. Effects of body position, extremity and neck extension, sedation, body weight, and sex on lung volume were analyzed.

Results-Mean +/- SD volume of dependent lung tissue was significantly decreased in vertical Selleckchem SNX-5422 left lateral (18.97 +/- 14.65 mL), right lateral (24.59 +/- 19.16 mL), and caudal (9.23 +/- 12.13 mL) recumbent positions, compared with the same region for turtles in horizontal ventral recumbency (48.52 +/- 20.08 mL, 50.66 +/- 18.08 mL, and 31.95 +/- 15.69 mL, respectively). Total lung volume did not differ among positions because of compensatory increases in nondependent lung tissue. Extension of the extremities and neck significantly increased total lung volume (12794 +/- 35.53 mL), compared with that in turtles with the head, neck, and extremities withdrawn into the shell (103.24 +/- 40.13 mL).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Vertical positioning of red-eared

sliders significantly affected lung volumes and could potentially affect interpretation of radiographs obtained see more in these positions. Extension of the extremities and neck resulted in the greatest total lung volume.”
“We propose that counterfactual representations for reasoning about the past or predicting the future depend on structured event complexes (SECs) in the human prefrontal cortex (PFC; ‘What would happen if X were performed in the past or enacted in the future?’). We identify three major categories of counterfactual thought (concerning action versus inaction, the self versus other and upward versus downward thinking) and propose that each form of inference recruits SEC representations in distinct regions of the medial PFC. We develop a process model of the regulatory functions these representations serve and draw conclusions about the importance of SECs for explaining the past and predicting the future.”
“The magnetic dead layer (MDL) in amorphous CoFeB layers is investigated for four different unit structures.