Two observers undertook a prospective independent evaluation of c

Two observers undertook a prospective independent evaluation of central lower fornix depth in a heterogeneous cohort of patients with clinically normal and abnormal conjunctival fornices both subjectively and by using the FDM (in mm). Upper central fornix depth was also measured. Agreement was assessed using Bland-Altman plots.\n\nResults Fifty-one eyes were evaluated. There was 100% intraobserver agreement to within 1 mm for each observer for lower

fornix measurement. The mean difference in fornix depth loss using the FDM between observer 1 and 2 was 1.19%, with 95% confidence of agreement (+/- 2SD) of -15% to +20%. In total, 86% (44/51) of measurements taken by the two observers agreed to within 10% of total lower fornix depth (ie, +/- 1 mm) versus only 63% (32/51) of the subjective measurements. Mean upper fornix difference was 0.57 mm, with 95% confidence of agreement of between -2 and +3 mm.\n\nConclusions selleck chemicals llc This custom-designed FDM is well tolerated by patients and shows low intraobserver and interobserver variability. This enables repeatable and reproducible measurement of upper and lower fornix depths, facilitating improved rates of detection and better monitoring of progression of conjunctival scarring.”
“Genetic variants predicted

to seriously disrupt the function of human protein-coding genes so-called loss-of-function (LOF) variants-have traditionally been viewed in the context of severe Mendelian disease. However, recent large-scale sequencing and genotyping projects have revealed a surprisingly large number of GS-7977 purchase these variants in the genomes of apparently healthy individuals at least 100 per genome, including more than 30 in a homozygous state suggesting a previously unappreciated level of variation in functional gene content between selleck chemical humans. These variants are mostly found at low frequency, suggesting that they are enriched for mildly

deleterious polymorphisms suppressed by negative natural selection, and thus represent an attractive set of candidate variants for complex disease susceptibility. However, they are also enriched for sequencing and annotation artefacts, so overall present serious challenges for clinical sequencing projects seeking to identify severe disease genes amidst the ‘noise’ of technical error and benign genetic polymorphism. Systematic, high-quality catalogues of LOF variants present in the genomes of healthy individuals, built from the output of large-scale sequencing studies such as the 1000 Genomes Project, will help to distinguish between benign and disease-causing LOF variants, and will provide valuable resources for clinical genomics.”
“Methadone, an opioid analgesic, is used clinically in pain therapy as well as for substitution therapy in opioid addiction. It has a large interindividual variability in response and a narrow therapeutic index.

05) PDGF-BB mRNA correlated significantly to thickness of LF (r

05). PDGF-BB mRNA correlated significantly to thickness of LF (r = 0.41) and the severity of fibrosis (r = 0.69) (P < 0.05).\n\nConclusion. A higher PDGF-BB expression existed in the hypertrophied LF of patients with LSS and could be a risk factor of the fibrosis.”
“Purpose of review\n\nThis review is designed to update the general pediatrician with information about current child maltreatment literature. The authors have selected salient articles, which inform daily practice of any

professional involved in the care of children who may be at risk of child abuse.\n\nRecent findings\n\nThe field of child abuse pediatrics continues to engender controversy in both medical journals and courtrooms. As scrutiny about selleckchem the basis for the diagnosis increases, clinicians and researchers work to build a solid base of scientific evidence with thorough and well-designed

studies. This is most evident with regards to abusive head trauma, wherein both lay and scientific press challenge the possibility that infants can be severely injured or killed by shaking, blunt force trauma, or both.\n\nSummary\n\nChild abuse pediatrics is a well-established and credible medical field. Although child physical and sexual abuse are age-old problems, public acknowledgement and intervention models are relatively new, and medical literature continues to reflect an increasing and deeper understanding of the impact of abuse throughout the world.”
“Generally in birds, the classic sex roles of male competition and female AR-13324 choice result in females providing most offspring care while males face uncertain parentage. In less than 5% of species, Copanlisib cell line however, reversed courtship sex roles lead to predominantly male care and low extra-pair paternity. These role-reversed species usually have reversed sexual size dimorphism and polyandry, confirming that sexual selection acts most strongly on the sex with the smaller parental investment and

accordingly higher potential reproductive rate. We used parentage analyses and observations from three field seasons to establish the social and genetic mating system of pheasant coucals, Centropus phasianinus, a tropical nesting cuckoo, where males are much smaller than females and provide most parental care. Pheasant coucals are socially monogamous and in this study males produced about 80% of calls in the dawn chorus, implying greater male sexual competition. Despite the substantial male investments, extra-pair paternity was unusually high for a socially monogamous, duetting species. Using two or more mismatches to determine extra-pair parentage, we found that 11 of 59 young (18.6%) in 10 of 21 broods (47.6%) were not sired by their putative father. Male incubation, starting early in the laying sequence, may give the female opportunity and reason to seek these extra-pair copulations. Monogamy, rather than the polyandry and sex-role reversal typical of its congener, C.

We evaluated the effect of individual RAAS

We evaluated the effect of individual RAAS ATM signaling pathway components on PTH using 4 interventions in humans without primary hyperaldosteronism. PTH was measured before and after study (1) low-dose angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion (1 ng/kg per minute) and captopril administration (25 mgx1); study (2) high-dose Ang II infusion (3 ng/kg per minute); study (3) blinded crossover randomization to aldosterone infusion (0.7 mu g/kg per hour) and vehicle; and study (4) blinded randomization to spironolactone (50 mg/daily) or placebo for 6 weeks. Infusion of Ang II at 1 ng/kg per minute acutely increased aldosterone (+148%) and PTH (+10.3%),

whereas Ang II at 3 ng/kg per minute induced larger incremental changes in aldosterone (+241%) and PTH (+36%; P smaller than 0.01). Captopril acutely decreased aldosterone (-12%) and PTH (-9.7%; P smaller than 0.01). In contrast, aldosterone infusion robustly raised serum aldosterone (+892%) without modifying PTH. However, spironolactone therapy during 6 weeks modestly lowered PTH when compared with placebo (P smaller than 0.05). In vitro studies revealed the presence of Ang II type I and mineralocorticoid receptor mRNA and protein expression in normal and adenomatous human parathyroid tissues. We observed novel pleiotropic relationships

between RAAS components and the regulation of PTH in individuals without primary hyperaldosteronism: the acute modulation of PTH by the RAAS seems to be mediated by Ang II, whereas the long-term influence of the RAAS on PTH may involve aldosterone. Future studies check details to evaluate the impact of RAAS inhibitors in treating PTH-mediated disorders are warranted.”
“Endoscopic resection (ER) is considered the therapy of choice for intraepithelial neoplasia associated with visible lesions and T1a adenocarcinoma. Pathologists are bound to encounter specimens collected via these techniques more frequently in their practice. A standardised protocol for handling, grossing, and assessing ER specimens should be

adopted to ensure that all prognostic information and characteristics influencing treatment are included in reports (see Supplementary Video Abstract, The entire specimen should be appropriately oriented, processed and assessed. An ER specimen will commonly show intraepithelial neoplasia or invasive carcinoma. There are essential features that should be recorded if invasive carcinoma is found as they dictate further management and follow-up. These features are the margin status, depth of invasion, degree of differentiation and presence or absence of lymphovascular invasion. Important features such as duplication of muscularis mucosae should be recognised to avoid misinterpretation of depth of invasion.

These spigots were present in P sagittifer; however, similarly p

These spigots were present in P. sagittifer; however, similarly positioned spigots in the undescribed species were not obviously modified (i.e., wider or with larger openings relative to the other piriform spigots). Close affinity to Mimetus was also indicated by tartipore-accommodated PLS aciniform silk glands in both Phobetinus species. These have been consistently observed in Mimetus, but not in Australomimetus or Ero. Somatic and genitalic drawings of P. sagittifer are provided to aid

identification and similarities are Geneticin noted between male pedipalps of Mimetus and Phobetinus. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Understanding the role of the developmental pathways in shaping phenotypic diversity allows appreciating in full the processes influencing and constraining morphological change. Podarcis lizards demonstrate extraordinary morphological variability that likely originated in short evolutionary time. Using geometric morphometrics and a broad suite of

statistical tests, we explored the role of developmental mechanisms such as growth rate change, ontogenetic divergence/convergence/parallelism as well as morphological expression of heterochronic processes in mediating the formation of their phenotypic diversity during the post-natal ontogeny. We identified hypermorphosis – the prolongation of growth along the Cilengitide research buy same trajectory – as the process responsible for both intersexual and interspecific morphological differentiation. Albeit the common allometric pattern observed in both sexes of any species constrains and canalizes their cephalic scales variation in a fixed portion of the phenotypic

space, the extended growth experienced by males and some species allows them to achieve peramorphic morphologies. Conversely, the intrasexual phenotypic diversity is accounted for by non-allometric processes that drive the extensive morphological dispersion throughout their ontogenetic trajectories. This study suggests a model of how simple heterochronic perturbations can produce LY3023414 phenotypic variation, and thus potential for further evolutionary change, even within a strictly constrained developmental pathway.”
“This paper presents the study on natural frequency characteristics of a thin-walled functionally graded material (FGM) cylindrical shell with rings support under symmetric uniform interior pressure distribution. The FGM properties are graded along the thickness direction of the shell. The FGM shell equations with rings support and interior pressure are established based on first-order shear deformation theory. The governing equations of motion were employed, using energy functional and by applying the Ritz method.

J Med Virol 81:42-48, 2009 (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc “

J. Med. Virol.81:42-48, 2009. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“Biliary tract carcinoma (BTC) has a poor prognosis. However, no

standard chemotherapy regimens have been established for inoperable cases or cases of recurrence after surgical resection. Recent molecular biological analysis has shown that epidermal growth factor receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, vascular endothelial growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, c-Met and transforming growth factor-beta could be potential targets for therapy of BTC. It is considered that these molecules are involved in the carcinogenesis, invasion, and progression of BTC. Furthermore, immunohistochemical overexpression of these targets is associated with several clinicopathological factors. This article reviews the clinicopathological AZD6094 significance of these

growth factors and their receptors.”
“Progress in the worldwide development of high-power gyrotrons for magnetic confinement fusion plasma applications is presented. Gyrotron oscillators are used for electron cyclotron heating, electron cyclotron current drive, stability control, and plasma diagnostics. After technology breakthroughs in the research on gyrotron components in the 1990s, significant progress has been achieved in the 2000s, in the field of long-pulse and continuous wave (CW) operation for a wide range of frequencies. Currently, the development of 1-MW-class CW gyrotrons for the tokamak ITER (170 GHz), the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X (140 GHz), and the tokamaks DIII-D and JT-60SA (110 GHz) has been very successful buy PD98059 in EU, Japan, Russia, and USA. The Japan 170-GHz ITER gyrotron holds the energy world record of 2.88 GJ (0.8 MW at 1-h pulse duration). For this progress in the field of

high-power long-pulse gyrotrons, innovations such as the realization of high-efficiency stable oscillation in very high-order cavity modes with low ohmic losses, the use of single-stage depressed collectors for energy recovery (efficiency enhancement and simpler power supplies), Rabusertib molecular weight highly efficient internal quasi-optical (q.o.) mode converters (low level of internal stray radiation), and synthetic diamond windows have essentially contributed. The total tube efficiencies are around 50% and the purity of the linearly polarized fundamental Gaussian output mode is 97% and higher. Power modulation technologies for stabilization of neoclassical tearing modes have proceeded. Future prospects of advanced high-power fusion gyrotrons are in the areas of two-and three-frequency gyrotrons, fast step-wise frequency tuneability, higher unit power (coaxial cavities), and higher frequencies for more efficient plasma stabilization and noninductive current drive as well as reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability for next step fusion power stations. The GYCOM step-tuneable 1-MW gyrotron for ASDEX Upgrade employing a broadband travelling-wave-resonator window (with two diamond disks) operates at 105, 117, 127 and 140 GHz.

We evaluated the association between socioeconomic status and the

We evaluated the association between socioeconomic status and the incidence of sudden cardiac arrest, a condition that accounts for a substantial proportion of cardiovascular-related deaths, in seven large North American urban populations.\n\nMethods: Using a population-based registry, we collected data on out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrests occurring at home or at a residential institution from Apr. 1, 2006, to Mar. 31, 2007. We limited the analysis to cardiac arrests in seven metropolitan areas in the United States (Dallas, Texas; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania;

Portland, Oregon; and Seattle-King County, Washington) and Canada (Ottawa and Toronto, Ontario; and Vancouver, British Columbia). Each incident was linked to a census tract; tracts were classified into quartiles of median household income.\n\nResults: A total of 9235 sudden cardiac arrests were included in the analysis. For all selleck kinase inhibitor sites combined, the incidence of sudden cardiac arrest in the lowest socioeconomic quartile was nearly double that in the highest quartile (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8-2.0). This disparity was greater among people less than 65 years old (IRR 2.7, 95% CI 2.5-3.0) than among those 65 or older (IRR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2-1.4). After adjustment for study site and for population age structure of each census

tract, the disparity across socio economic quartiles for all ages combined was greater in the United States (IRR 2.0, 95% CI 1.9-2.2)

than in Canada (IRR PF-04929113 datasheet 1.8, 95% CI 1.6-2.0) (p < 0.001 for interaction).\n\nInterpretation: The incidence of sudden cardiac arrest at home or at a residential institution was higher in poorer neighbourhoods of the US and Canadian sites studied, Epigenetic inhibitor although the association was attenuated in Canada. The disparity across socioeconomic quartiles was greatest among people younger than 65. The association be tween socio economic status and incidence of sudden cardiac arrest merits consideration in the development of strategies to improve survival from sudden cardiac arrest, and possibly to identify opportunities for prevention.”
“Background: Therapeutic hypothermia (TH, 30 degrees C) protects the brain from hypoxic injury. However, TH may potentiate the occurrence of lethal ventricular fibrillation (VF), although the mechanism remains unclear. The present study explored the hypothesis that TH enhances wavebreaks during VF and Si pacing, facilitates pacing-induced spatially discordant alternans (SDA), and increases the vulnerability of pacing-induced VF\n\nMethods and Results: Using an optical mapping system, epicardial activations of VF were studied in 7 Langendorff-perfused isolated rabbit hearts at baseline (37 degrees C), TH (30 degrees C), and rewarming (37 degrees C). Action potential duration (APD)/conduction velocity (CV) restitution and APD alternans (n=6 hearts) were determined by S1 pacing at these 3 stages.

The exponential parameters of the Gaussians are variationally opt

The exponential parameters of the Gaussians are variationally optimized with the aid of the analytical energy gradient determined with respect to those parameters. The calculated state energies are compared with the available experimental data. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. []“
“Purpose: To determine the rates of globe-sparing treatment and useful final visual function in patients with primary lacrimal sac/nasolacrimal duct carcinomas treated with multidisciplinary therapy.\n\nMethods: The medical records of 14 patients with primary lacrimal sac/nasolacrimal duct carcinoma treated at 1 institution were retrospectively reviewed.\n\nResults:

The patients were 9 men and 5 women; the median age at diagnosis was 58.5 years (range, 45-73 years). Seven patients presented with epiphora, 7 with a palpable Cl-amidine concentration mass in the inferomedial orbit, and 2 with dacryocystitis. In 3 patients, the diagnosis of cancer was not considered

until during or after dacryocystorhinostomy. Seven patients had squamous cell carcinoma, 2 transitional cell carcinoma, 2 adenoid cystic carcinoma, and 1 each adenocarcinoma, poorly differentiated carcinoma, and inverted papilloma with carcinoma in situ transformation. Nine ATM Kinase Inhibitor in vivo patients underwent surgical resection of the lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct and resection of the medial upper and lower eyelids, including canaliculi, partial ethmoidectomy, and medial maxillectomy. One patient underwent lacrimal sac biopsy only as another primary malignancy was Nepicastat concentration discovered during the work-up for systemic disease. Four patients underwent orbital exenteration because of extensive involvement of the orbital soft tissue. Radiotherapy was recommended for 13 patients; in 1 patient, radiotherapy was not recommended because the patient had an inverted papilloma with carcinoma in situ transformation that was completely excised. The median radiation dose was 60 Gy. Eight patients received chemotherapy either concurrent with radiation therapy (5 patients), as neoadjuvant treatment (1 patient), or for progressive or metastatic disease (3 patients). The median follow-up time was 27 months (range, 6-96 months). In

10 patients, the globe was spared. In 9 of these 10 patients, visual acuity was the same as at baseline or better than 20/40 at last follow up.\n\nConclusions: With multidisciplinary therapy, the eye can be spared and reasonable visual function can be preserved in most patients with primary lacrimal sac/nasolacrimal duct carcinomas.”
“Objective: To investigate experimentally the time dependent changes of latency, amplitude, threshold of neural response in injured rat facial nerve in a nerve-crush trauma model.\n\nMaterials and Methods: Thirty Wistar rats weighing 220-280 g (12-16 week), were grouped for permanent and transient nerve injury during time course analysis of electrophysiological changes at 1st week, and 1st, 3rd and 6th months.

(C) 2010 Elsevier

(C) 2010 Elsevier Rabusertib purchase B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: To investigate clinical characteristics and treatment effect of sarcoidosis with cutaneous lesions in Chinese patients, and to compare them with previous works. Methods: Retrospective analysis was conducted based on clinical manifestations, systemic examinations and treatment of biopsy-proved 36 patients with sarcoidosis with cutaneous lesions in our hospital since 2000. Patients were divided into cutaneous sarcoidosis (CS) group without systemic involvement and systemic sarcoidosis (SS) group with systemic involvement according to whether extracutaneous systems were involved. Results: Male to female ratio

was 1:4.1 in total 36 patients. Average age of onset was (43.6 +/- 15.8) years old in CS group and (54.4 +/- 11.5) years old in SS group. The most common cutaneous lesions were papulonodules (41.7%) and frequently found in limbs (61.1%). There were 26 patients in SS group, and lung was the most common organ with systemic involvement, followed by lymph nodes. In SS group, elevation of inflammatory parameters and evident changes of chest radiologic examination were often observed. 72.2% patients were treated with glucocorticoid Proteasome purification and the overall therapeutic efficacy rate was 48.4%. The therapeutic efficacy in

CS group (80%) was significantly higher than SS group (33.3%). Papulonodules type had better response to therapy and usually resolved after treatment. Lupus pernio type was resistant to treatment.

Conclusion: Sarcoidosis occurs more frequently in females. Lung is the most commonly affected extracutaneous organ in SS patients. CS patients have better response to therapy than SS patients. Types of cutaneous lesions and existence of systemic involvement are related to prognosis of cutaneous lesions.”
“We describe the architecture of the Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) funded Scalable Collaborative Infrastructure for a Learning Healthcare System (SCILHS, clinical data research network, which leverages the $48 billion dollar federal investment in health information technology (IT) to enable a queryable semantic data model across 10 health systems covering more than 8 million patients, plugging universally into the point of care, generating evidence and discovery, and thereby enabling clinician and Pexidartinib ic50 patient participation in research during the patient encounter. Central to the success of SCILHS is development of innovative ‘apps’ to improve PCOR research methods and capacitate point of care functions such as consent, enrollment, randomization, and outreach for patient-reported outcomes. SCILHS adapts and extends an existing national research network formed on an advanced IT infrastructure built with open source, free, modular components.”
“Purpose: To assess the incremental, comparative effectiveness (patient value gain) and cost effectiveness (financial value gain) associated with 0.

Secondly, adenovirus-mediated overexpression of wild-type IKK bet

Secondly, adenovirus-mediated overexpression of wild-type IKK beta in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes did not suppress insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose

uptake, IRS1 tyrosine phosphorylation, IRS1 association with the p85 regulatory subunit of PI3K or PKB phosphorylation. Thirdly, insulin signalling was not potentiated in mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking IKK beta. Finally, insulin treatment of 3T3-L1 BEZ235 mw adipocytes did not promote the recruitment of IKK beta to IRS1, supporting our findings that IKK beta, although activated by insulin, does not promote direct serine phosphorylation of IRS1 and does not contribute to the feedback inhibition of the insulin signalling cascade.”
“The kinetochore is a complex molecular machine that serves as the interface between sister chromatids and the mitotic pindle The kinetochore assembles at a particular chromosomal locus the centromere which is essential to maintain genomic stability during cell division The kinetochore is a macromolecular puzzle of subcomplexes assembled in a hierarchical manner

and fulfils three main functions microtubule attachment chromosome and sister chromatid movement and regulation of mitotic progression though the spindle assembly checkpoint In the present paper we compare recent results on the assembly organization PF-03084014 and function

of the kinetochore in human and Drosophila cells and conclude that although essential functions are highly conserved there are important GSK1120212 differences that might help define what is a minimal chromosome segregation machinery”
“Sorting of ubiquitinated proteins to multivesicular bodies (MVBs) in mammalian cells relies on proteins with a Vps27/Hrs/STAM (VHS) domain. Here, we show that the amoeba Dictyostelium presents only one protein with a VHS domain: DdTom1. We demonstrate that the VHS domain of DdTom1 is followed by a Golgi-localized, gamma-ear-containing, ADP-ribosylation-factor-binding and Tom1 (GAT) domain that binds ubiquitin, and by a non-conserved C-terminal domain that can recruit clathrin, EGFr pathway substrate 15 and tumor susceptibility gene 101, a component of the MVB biogenesis machinery [endosomal complexes required for transport (ESCRT) complexes]. Both VHS and GAT domains interact with phospholipids and therefore could ensure the recruitment of DdTom1 to endosomal membranes. We propose that DdTom1 participates in an ancestral ESCRT-0 complex implicated in the sorting of ubiquitinated proteins into MVBs.”
“Due to changes in the design of industrial food processing and increasing international trade, highly thermoresistant spore-forming bacteria are an emerging problem in food production.

What’s more, the litter size in the Duroc breed was also signific

What’s more, the litter size in the Duroc breed was also significantly dependent (P<0.05) on polymorphism in intron3 (g.3838-3839 Belinostat price sTGCAG). Sows with NN genotype had more

piglets per litter than those of MM or/and MN genotypes. A similar relation (though not significant) was observed in remaining breeds tested. It is concluded that ZAR1 gene might be a potential important candidate gene related to litter size in pigs.”
“Exercise improves the central nervous system (CNS) functions and is widely recommended for neurological patients with, e.g., Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, exercise-induced neuroprotection is an open discussion. Here, the intranasal administration of the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP, 65 mg/kg) caused death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and depletion of dopamine in the striatum of C57BL/6 mice. 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, the active metabolite of MPTP, also inhibited complex-I activity of mitochondria isolated from the CNS of mice. However, 6 weeks of exercise on voluntary running wheels did not protect against nigrostriatal neurodegeneration or

mitochondrial inhibition, suggesting that benefits of exercise for PD may not be associated with neuroprotection. The literature presents other candidates, such as neurotrophins or increased CAL-101 in vitro antioxidant defenses.”
“Activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) by phosphorylation is thought to mediate anti-inflammatory responses to CNS injury. Several studies have reported

an increase in phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3) in peripheral T cells and monocytes from patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) during relapses, suggesting that pSTAT3 might represent an inflammatory marker. Here, we examined immunoreactivity for pSTAT3 in brain tissue samples from MS patients and controls. Phosphorylated STAT3 immunoreactivity was sparse within lesions, with CA3 cost no difference between active and inactive lesions. It was, however, significantly greater in white matter (WM) adjacent to active and inactive lesions; moreover, it was significantly greater in WM adjacent to active versus inactive lesions. Phosphorylated STAT3-positive cells were identified as astrocytes and macrophages/microglia. Phosphorylated STAT3 expression was also detected by Western blotting in WM of patients with MS. In comparison, pSTAT3 immunoreactivity was either rare or found focally in brain tissue samples from patients with other neurologic diseases. Our findings show that pSTAT3 does not correlate with inflammatory activity in MS lesions, but that it may play an important role in regulating reactive changes proximal to MS lesions.”
“The inflammatory environment within the atherosclerotic lesion stimulates the 5-lipoxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism, leading to the biosynthesis of the potent lipid inflammatory mediators leukotrienes.