This model includes boron-interstitial clusters (BICs) with BnIm

This model includes boron-interstitial clusters (BICs) with BnIm configurations-complexes with n B atoms and m Si interstitials-larger (n > 4), and eventually more stable, than those included in previous models. In crystalline Si, the formation and dissolution pathways into large BICs configurations require high B concentration and depend on the flux of Si interstitials. In the presence of high Si interstitial flux, large BICs with a relatively large number of interstitials (m >= n) are formed, dissolving under relatively low thermal budgets. On the contrary, for low Si interstitial flux large BICs with few interstitials (m << n) can form, which are more stable ERK inhibitor cell line than

small BICs, and whose complete dissolution requires very intense thermal budgets. We have also investigated the kinetics of large BICs in preamorphized Si, both experimentally and theoretically. B was implanted at a high-dose into preamorphized Si, and the B precipitation was studied by transmission electron

microscopy and by sheet resistance and Hall see more measurement techniques. A simplified model for B clustering and redistribution in amorphous Si is proposed, including the experimental value for the B diffusivity in amorphous Si and the energetics of BICs. Our model suggests that B-2, B3I, B4I and B4I2 clusters are the most energetically favored configurations, with relative abundance depending on B concentration. After recrystallization, thermal anneals up to 1100 degrees C evidence that BICs evolve under very low flux of Si interstitials under the particular experimental conditions considered. Simulations indicate that for very high B concentrations and low Si interstitial flux a significant fraction of the initial small BICs evolves into larger and very stable BIC configurations that survive even after intense thermal budgets, as confirmed by energy filtered transmission electron microscopy analyses. The correlation between simulations and Hall measurements on these samples suggest that hole mobility is significantly

degraded by the presence of a high concentration of BICs. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3639280]“
“Background: Evofosfamide concentration Assessment of primary vaccination of a new fully liquid, hexavalent investigational DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T vaccine (Hexaxim) in South African infants.

Methods: Infants were randomized to the following at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age (Expanded Program on Immunization schedule): DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T (Group 1; N = 286); DTwP-Hib, hepatitis B, and OPV vaccines (Group 2; N = 286); or DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T vaccine with hepatitis B vaccine at birth (Group 3; N = 143). Antibody titers were measured before vaccination (pertussis toxoid, filamentous hemagglutinin) and postprimary vaccination (all valences).

6Cr0 4) Si film also reduced from 1 7 to 0 5 nm by using the VHF

6Cr0.4) Si film also reduced from 1.7 to 0.5 nm by using the VHF plasma irradiation process. It is found that the Fe-2(Mn, Cr) Si Heusler alloy and the VHF plasma irradiation process with optimized condition seems to be applicable for fabrication of high-performance magnetic read head with CPP-GMR

device. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3562198]“
“This pilot study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) for the treatment of pelvic organ prolapse.

Thirty-seven women with stage II prolapse were randomized to either the intervention group (n = 21) or the control group (n GDC-0973 research buy = 16). The evaluation included assessments of pelvic floor muscle function and surface electromyography at baseline and post 14 weeks of treatment. The severity of prolapse was quantified by the POP-Q method and symptoms by P-QoL questionnaire.

The intervention group showed significantly greater anatomic improvements in Pitavastatin datasheet the anterior and posterior vaginal wall prolapses than did the control group (P < 0.001 and 0.025, respectively) and a decrease of symptoms. In addition, the intervention group had greater improvements in muscle

strength (P < 0.001), endurance (P < 0.001), and electromyography parameters (P = 0.008) compared to the control group.

PFMT is effective in the treatment of pelvic organ prolapse.”
“Background: Recently a new genogroup of human rhinovirus (HRV) has been described and named HRV-C. The relative importance of HRV-C in viral respiratory tract illnesses is unknown.

Objective: We looked for HRV-C in pediatric patients with respiratory tract infections to determine the incidence of HRV-C and its role in sick and healthy children. We describe the clinical differences associated with HRV-C infections and other INCB024360 HRV genogroups.

Patients and Methods: From January 2004 to December 2008, a prospective study was conducted in children younger than 14 years who were admitted with respiratory infection to the Pediatrics Department of the Severo Ochoa Hospital in Madrid, Spain. Specimens of nasopharyngeal aspirate were taken for virologic

study with polymerase chain reaction, and clinical data were recorded. HRV specimens were genotyped. We studied the frequency of HRV-C infections, the clinical course of these patients and the differences with other HRV genogroups (HRV-A and HRV-B). Presence of HRV-C was also studied in a group of healthy children.

Results: HRV was detected in 424 of 1555 episodes of illness (27.2%) and in 26 of 211 healthy children (12.3%) (P < 0.001). We amplified at random 248 of them (227 hospitalized children and 21 healthy children): 132 (53.2%) had HRV-A, 28 (11.2%) had HRV-B, and 88 (35.4%) HRV-C. HRV-C infections were associated with asthma, recurrent wheezing, and bronchiolitis but were not significantly different from the HRV-A genogroup.

However, such therapies will be dependent upon the development

However, such therapies will be dependent upon the development

of novel approaches that can best assess tissue outcomes of pluripotent stem cell-derived cells and will be essential to better predict their safety and stability following in vivo transplantation.

Methods: In this study we used engineered, human skin equivalents (HSEs) as a platform to characterize fibroblasts that have been derived from human embryonic stem (hES) cell. We characterized selleck products the phenotype and the secretion profile of two distinct hES-derived cell lines with properties of mesenchymal cells (EDK and H9-MSC) and compared their biological potential upon induction of differentiation to bone and fat and following their incorporation into the stromal compartment of engineered, HSEs.

Results: While both EDK and H9-MSC cell lines exhibited similar morphology and mesenchymal cell marker expression, they demonstrated distinct functional properties when incorporated into the stromal compartment of HSEs. EDK cells displayed characteristics of dermal fibroblasts that could support epithelial tissue development and enable re-epithelialization of wounds generated using a 3D tissue model of cutaneous wound healing, which was linked to elevated production of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF).

Lentiviral shRNA-mediated knockdown of HGF resulted in a dramatic decrease of HGF secretion from EDK cells that led to a marked reduction in their ability to promote keratinocyte proliferation and re-epithelialization of cutaneous wounds. In contrast, H9-MSCs demonstrated features of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) but not those of dermal fibroblasts, LCL161 cost as they underwent multilineage differentiation in monolayer culture, but were unable to

support epithelial tissue development and repair and produced significantly lower levels of HGF.

Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that hES-derived cells could be directed to specified and alternative mesenchymal cell fates whose function could be distinguished in engineered HSEs. Characterization of hES-derived mesenchymal cells in 3D, engineered JIB-04 mouse HSEs demonstrates the utility of this tissue platform to predict the functional properties of hES-derived fibroblasts before their therapeutic transplantation.”
“BACKGROUND: Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) with small-airway pathology and obstructive pulmonary physiology may not be the only form of chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) after lung transplantation. Characteristics of a form of CLAD consisting of restrictive functional changes involving peripheral lung pathology were investigated.

METHODS: Patients who received bilateral lung transplantation from 1996 to 2009 were retrospectively analyzed. Baseline pulmonary function was taken as the time of peak forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)). CLAD was defined as irreversible decline in FEV(1) < 80% baseline.

“Background Cancer patients face difficulties in accessing

“Background Cancer patients face difficulties in accessing legally mandated benefits and accommodations when they return to the workplace. Poor employeremployee communication inflates these difficulties. Although proven methods to facilitate physicianpatient communication exist, these have not been applied to the workplace. Thus, we aimed to assess the feasibility and utility of applying these methods

to educate patients about their workplace rights and provide them with communication skills training to aid GSK1904529A purchase their conversations with their employers. Methods A DVD was produced to educate patients and facilitate workplace communication. Participants consisted of 28 solid tumor cancer patients (14 women and 14 men) who completed primary cancer treatment in the past 12 months and were employed at the time of diagnosis. Participants watched a communication skills training DVD and completed a telephone interview. The interview elicited information about workplace experiences and evaluation of the DVD training program. Results The physicianpatient communication skills training model utilized was successfully translated to the employeremployee setting. All but one participant found the selleck kinase inhibitor DVD useful and easy to understand and indicated

a high degree of confidence in using the communication skills to help them ask for workplace accommodations. All participants agreed that it would help newly diagnosed patients in discussions with their employers. Conclusion Our data provides promising preliminary evidence that patient communication skills training can be applied to the workplace setting and is a welcomed aid to newly diagnosed cancer patients in their discussions

with employers regarding the impact of treatment on their work performance and needs for accommodations. Copyright (c) 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Aims: To evaluate for the first time in children the effect of soy-derived isoflavones on lipid profile click here and insulin resistance.

Methods: Twelve hypercholesterolemic children (8 females) aged 5.3 to 11.2 years have completed a prospective, controlled pilot study. After a low-fat diet for 12 weeks, children who maintained high cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were randomly assigned to three intervention periods of either placebo or low and high dose isoflavone (16 or 48 mg) consumption, each period lasting 8 weeks.

Results: The diet significantly reduced LDL-C and apolipoprotein B (Apo B) levels. However, isoflavones had no effect on cholesterol, LDLC, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides, lipoprotein (a), Apo B, or insulin resistance, at either low or high doses. Isoflavones had no effect on sex hormones, gonadotropins, sex-hormone binding globulin and thyroid hormones.

The goal of the present meta-analysis was to investigate postoper

The goal of the present meta-analysis was to investigate postoperative analgesic properties of ketamine in pediatric patients.

Material and methods:

A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify clinical trials that used ketamine as a perioperative analgesic compound in children and infants. Outcomes measured were postoperative analgesic consumption, pain intensity and duration of sensory block (when ketamine was used by caudal route) during HKI 272 the postoperative care unit (PACU) stay and the early postoperative period (6-24 h after leaving the operative room). The data from each

trial were combined to calculate the pooled odds ratios or standard mean differences and their 95% confidence intervals.


Thirty-five randomized, blinded controlled studies were retrieved from the literature. Systemic selleck inhibitor ketamine was effective in decreasing PACU pain intensity and analgesic

requirement but failed to influence early (6-24 h) pain intensity and analgesic requirement. Ketamine administered locally during tonsillectomy, decreased PACU and early (6-24 h) pain intensity and PACU analgesic requirements. Used as an adjuvant for caudal analgesia, ketamine increased the duration of sensory block and PACU analgesic requirement without impacting PACU pain intensity. Ketamine failed to exhibit a postoperative opioid-sparing effect.


This meta-analysis found that administration of ketamine was associated with decreased PACU postoperative pain intensity and nonopioid analgesic requirement. However, ketamine

failed to exhibit a postoperative opioid-sparing effect.”
“The phase stability, nonstoichiometry, point defects, and magnetoresistance (MR) of polycrystalline Sr2FeMoO6-delta (SFMO) were studied. Thermogravimety Silmitasertib mw at 1200 degrees C in combination with x-ray diffraction shows that single-phase SFMO exists between -10.2 <= log p(O2) <= -13.7 at 1200 degrees C. At lower oxygen partial pressure mass loss signals reductive decomposition; at higher p(O2) a mass gain indicates oxidative decomposition into SrMoO4 and SrFeO3-x. The nonstoichiometry delta at 1200 degrees C was measured as function of p(O2) and oxygen vacancies were found to represent majority defects. The vacancy concentration increases with decreasing p(O2); a maximum nonstoichiometry of delta = 0.086 is observed close to the lower phase boundary. Samples with different delta were prepared at 1200 degrees C and various p(O2). The variation of structural parameters, magnetization, and MR is discussed in relation to oxygen nonstoichiometry delta. Maximum MR=6.5% at 298 K and 1 T is observed for samples with large delta. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3065969]“
“Purpose of review

The spondyloarthropathies (SpAs) are a group of interrelated inflammatory disorders with overlapping clinical features.

This provides further

This provides further this website evidence for the feedback regulation of flavonoid gene expression having been previously reported for the prohexadione-Ca inhibited apple plants. (C) 2011 Elsevier Masson

SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Background: The role of viruses in pediatric pneumonia remains poorly studied in sub-Saharan Africa, where pneumonia-associated mortality is high.

Methods: During a 1-year hospital-based surveillance, a nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) was collected from children aged <5 years admitted to hospital in rural Mozambique with clinically severe pneumonia. Identification of 12 respiratory viruses was performed by polymerase chain reactions (PCR). Study children were also tested for invasive bacterial infection (IBI), Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia, and HIV.

Results: Almost half (394/807) of the children hospitalized with clinically severe pneumonia had at least one respiratory virus detected. A total of 475 viruses were detected among these 394 children, the most prevalent ones were rhinovirus (41%), adenovirus (21%), and respiratory syncytial virus (11%). Eleven percent of viral infected

children had concomitant IBI, 15% had malaria parasites, and 25% had HIV coinfection. Viral infection was 5.5 to 16 times more prevalent among HIV-infected selleck kinase inhibitor children and incidence rate ratios varied according to virus. Inhospital mortality of viral cases was 9%, being highest among cases with IBI coinfection GSK1904529A molecular weight (odds ratio = 7) or HIV infection (odds ratio = 7).

Conclusions: Study results highlight the high prevalence of respiratory viruses among hospitalized pneumonia cases in Mozambique. HIV infection is an important contributor to the high burden of disease and associated mortality of viral pneumonia. IBI also contributes to

a worse prognosis of viral cases. Strategies to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV as well as introduction of Hib and pneumococcal vaccines could have a substantial impact on reduction of viral pneumonia and associated mortality among children in rural Africa.”
“Tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs) are potential successors of metal-oxide-semiconductor FETs because they promise superior input characteristics. However, the output characteristics of TFETs are poorly understood, and sometimes a superlinear onset, undesirable for circuit design, is observed. We present the first analytical model to include the impact of the drain voltage on the TFET performance. The model is developed for both a pure line-tunneling TFET and a pure point-tunneling TFET. Good agreement is observed with device simulations, especially for line-tunneling TFETs. Our model highlights and explains the superlinear onset of the output characteristics, thereby enabling an improved analysis of experimental data. Increasing the source doping level and switching to a smaller bandgap material can remove the undesired onset.

001) expression significantly correlated with decreased overall s

001) expression significantly correlated with decreased overall survival in both SC/ASC and AC patients. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that positive ALDH1A3 expression or negative GPX3 expression was an independent poor-prognostic predictor

in both SC/ASC and AC patients. Conclusions. Our study suggested that positive ALDH1A3 and negative GPX3 expressions are closely associated with clinical pathological behaviors and poor prognosis of gallbladder cancer.”
“The synthesis of polymer-grafted natural rubbers (NRs) was considered through photopolymerization of vinyl monomers initiated from N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate groups previously introduced onto cis 1,4-polyisoprene units of NR chains. MEK inhibitor The development of the procedure was made with methyl methacrylate (NMA) as monomer. First, initiation of MMA photopolymerization Rigosertib was tested using a model molecule of the

N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate-functionalized 1,4-polyisoprene unit to verify the feasibility of the procedure considered. Then, MMA polymerization was successfully initiated from N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate-functionalized NR backbone used as macroinitiator, and the conditions of grafting were optimized. It was shown that MMA grafting could occur either in monomer medium, in solution in toluene, and in latex medium, and that the quantities of homopolymer formed were still low. Thereafter, grafting studies were performed with other vinyl monomers (styrene, methacrylonitrile, acrylamide, acrylic acid) showing that grafting efficiency depends essentially on the nature of the monomer. The method developed here was shown particularly well adapted for the synthesis of polymer-grafted NR with monomers of low polarity. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 114: 2149-2160,2009″
“This article contains a review of the main developments reported during 2009 in either publications or presentations on the pathophysiology, secondary prevention, prognosis or

treatment of acute coronary syndrome, with or without ST-segment elevation.”
“Objectives. The study was designed to evaluate associations LXH254 mw between symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), inflammation, and superoxide anion (O-2(center dot-)) with endothelial function and to determine their potential for screening of endothelial dysfunction in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and renal transplant (RT) recipients. Materials and Methods. We included 64 CKD and 52 RT patients. Patients were stratified according to brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Results. Logistic regression analysis showed that high SDMA and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were associated with impaired FMD in CKD and RT patients, after adjustment for glomerular filtration rate. The ability of inflammation, SDMA, and O-2(center dot-) to detect impaired FMD was investigated by receiving operative characteristic analysis. Hs-CRP (area under the curves (AUC) = 0.754, P < 0.001), IL-6 (AUC = 0.699, P = 0.002), and SDMA (AUC = 0.

Consequently, potentially valuable spatial information is lost an

Consequently, potentially valuable spatial information is lost and the lower abundance cellular components that are expressed only in certain cell types can be diluted below the level of detection. In this study, laser microdissection (LMD) was used to isolate epidermal and subepidermal cells from green, expanding Citrus clementina fruit and their transcriptomes were compared using a 20k citrus cDNA microarray and quantitative real-time PCR. The results show striking differences in gene expression NU7441 purchase profiles between the two cell types, revealing specific metabolic

pathways that can be related to their respective organelle composition and cell wall specialization. Microscopy provided additional evidence of tissue specialization that could be associated with the transcript profiles with distinct differences in organelle and metabolite accumulation. Subepidermis predominant genes are primarily see more involved in photosynthesis- and energy-related processes, as well as cell wall biosynthesis and restructuring. By contrast,

the most epidermis predominant genes are related to the biosynthesis of the cuticle, flavonoids, and defence responses. Furthermore, the epidermis transcript profile showed a high proportion of genes with no known function, supporting

the original hypothesis that analysis at the tissue/cell specific levels can promote gene discovery and lead to a better understanding of the specialized contribution of each tissue to fruit physiology.”
“Introduction and hypothesis The objective of this study was to compare the Manchester Fothergill (MF) procedure with vaginal hysterectomy (VH) as surgical treatment of uterine descent.

Methods Consecutive patients who underwent MF were matched for prolapse grade, age and parity NCT-501 chemical structure to consecutive patients treated with VH. Evaluated outcomes included functional outcome, morbidity, recurrence of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and sexual function. Follow-up was performed using validated questionnaires.

Results We included 196 patients (98 patients per group). The response rate after a follow-up of 4-9 years was 80%. We found no differences in functional outcome and recurrence rates of POP between groups. Blood loss was significantly less and operating time was significantly shorter in the MF group. However, incomplete emptying of the bladder was more common in the MF group.

Conclusions The MF procedure is equally effective to the VH and should be considered as a surgical option that allows preservation of the uterus.

Moreover, the qualitative conclusions in those studies are favora

Moreover, the qualitative conclusions in those studies are favorable to the use of the sponsored prophylactie agent.”
“Purpose of reviewIn contrast to the disease remission enjoyed by a majority of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients during pregnancy, the immediate postpartum period is generally characterized by flare. Managing symptoms during this time is challenging because the potential transfer of medication into the breast milk of nursing mothers may limit which antirheumatic drugs can be safely used. The benefits of breastfeeding are significant, however, so an understanding of how to adjust medications to permit lactation and nursing is important for rheumatologists.Recent

GSK J4 in vivo findingsAlthough nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in general are passed into milk in low doses, shorter acting NSAIDs are preferred, with caution for premature infants. Prednisone can be taken by nursing mothers, although when used at doses higher than 20mg/day an interval of 4h after dosing and prior to breastfeeding is recommended. Hydroxychloroquine and sulfasalazine are compatible with nursing.

Cyclosporine is generally allowed in lactating women, although a single infant was reported to develop therapeutic drug levels. Azathioprine (AZA) and tissue necrosis factor–inhibitors have little to no transfer into breast milk, with negligible levels measured in infant sera, and thus may be considered for use in lactating mothers. Methotrexate and leflunomide should not be used. Other biological RA medications have not been evaluated, and are, therefore, best avoided by breastfeeding

patients.SummaryMany AZD6738 but not all RA medications may be used during lactation with low risk to the nursing infant; this review summarizes the available data for commonly used medications in order to help guide therapy during Lapatinib in vivo the postpartum period.”
“We report the dependence of electronic and optical properties on the Ag thickness in transparent conductive indium tin oxide (ITO)-Ag-ITO (IMI) multilayer films deposited on polyethylene naphthalate flexible substrate by sputtering at room temperature. The electrical properties (such as carrier concentration, mobility, and resistivity) changed significantly with incorporation of Ag between the ITO layers. Comparison of sheet resistance of the IMI multilayers and the calculated sheet resistance of the Ag midlayer indicates that most of the conduction is through the Ag film. The critical thickness of Ag to form a continuous conducting layer is found to be 8 nm using electrical and optical analysis. A conduction mechanism is proposed to elucidate the mobility variation with increased Ag thickness. Carrier transport is limited by either interface scattering or grain-boundary scattering depending on the thickness of the Ag midlayer. Interface scattering is dominant for thinner (5.5-7 nm) Ag and grain-boundary scattering is dominant for thicker (8-10.

The potential of the Dy3+: YAG transparent ceramics for yellow or

The potential of the Dy3+: YAG transparent ceramics for yellow or blue laser emission is discussed. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3656718]“
“We studied the kinetics and mechanism of the charge-transfer polymerization of methyl BAY 57-1293 molecular weight methacrylate (MMA) initiated with n-butyl amine (BA) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) catalyzed by palladium dichloride (PdCl2 or PdII) in a dimethyl sulfoxide medium by using a dilatometric technique at 60 degrees

C. The rate of polymerization (Rp) was a function of [MMA], [BA], [CCl4], and [PdII]. The kinetic data indicated a mechanism involving the possible participation of the charge-transfer complex formed between the BAPdII complex and CCl4 or monomer in the polymerization of MMA. In the absence of either CCl4 or BA, no polymerization of MMA was observed under these experimental conditions. Rp was inhibited by hydroquinone; this suggested a free-radical initiation. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“Background: Several techniques for liver resection have been developed. We compared radiofrequency-assisted (RF) and clamp-crush learn more (CC) liver resection (LR) in terms of blood loss,

operating time and short-term outcomes in primary and metastatic tumour resection.

Methods: From 2002 to 2007, 196 consecutive patients with primary or metastatic hepatic tumours underwent RF-LR (n = 109; group 1) or CC-LR (n = 87; group 2) in our unit. Primary endpoints were intraoperative blood loss (and blood transfusion requirements) and total operative time. Secondary endpoints included postoperative complications, mortality and intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stay. Data were collected retrospectively on all patients with primary or secondary liver lesions.

Results: Blood loss was similar (P = 0.09) between the two groups of patients with the exception of high MELD score

(> 9) cirrhotic patients, in whom blood loss was lower when RF-LR was used (P < 0.001). Total operative time and transection time were shorter in the CC-LR group (P = 0.04 and P = 0.01, respectively), except for high MELD score (> 9) cirrhotic patients, in whom total operation and transection times were shorter when RF-LR was used (P = 0.04). Rates of bile leak and abdominal abscess formation were higher GS-9973 cost after RF-LR (P = 0.04 for both).

Conclusions: Clamp-crush LR is reliable and results in the same amount of blood loss and a shorter operating time compared with RF-LR. Radiofrequency-assisted LR is a unique, simple and safe method of resection, which may be indicated in cirrhotic patients with high MELD scores.”
“Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic Gram-negative pathogen with increasing relevance in a variety of hospital-acquired infections especially among intensive care unit patients. Resistance to antimicrobial agents is the main reason for A. baumannii spread. A.