This Epacadostat solubility dmso approach of growth curve synchronization has several advantages over sampling a system at different times. Firstly, the endpoint measurements can all be performed at the same time, thereby decreasing experimental variability. Secondly, efficiency will be improved compared to processing multiple samples at different times. Thirdly, no invasive sampling is necessary and the method requires no constant vigilance or presence. Finally, as we discuss throughout the paper, it allows measuring the division rate of cells

directly from optical density with very high precision. We exemplify the growth curve synchronization method by analyzing rhamnolipid secretion by the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen found in long-term, often terminal, infections in cystic fibrosis patients and various nosocomial infections occurring in immunocompromized Defactinib molecular weight patients [2–9]. Rhamnolipids are among the predominant virulence factors of P. aeruginosa [9, 10]. These glycolipid surfactants are involved in the formation and maintenance of biofilms, cytolysis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and swarming motility ([8, 11]; reviewed in [12]). Their synthesis is regulated by quorum sensing, a mechanism for cell density-dependent

gene regulation. As such, rhamnolipid secretion in P. aeruginosa is a valuable model system to investigate how pathogenic bacteria coordinate population-wide traits at the molecular level [13]. The rhamnolipid quorum-sensing regulation consists of at least two hierarchical systems governed by two different autoinducers [14–23].

These two systems, called rhl and las, share a common motif. An autoinducer synthase (RhlI and LasI) synthesizes click here the autoinducer (N-butyryl-L-homoserine lactone or C4-HSL and N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone or 3O-C12-HSL), which binds to its cognate transcription factor (RhlR and LasR) that, in turn, up-regulates the autoinducer synthase in a positive feedback. LasR controls expression of RhlR, and thereby the las system is hierarchically above rhl. The rhl system induces expression of rhlAB, resulting in rhamnolipid production [24]. In spite of this knowledge, the rhamnolipid system has puzzled microbiologists because it does not behave like the paradigm of quorum sensing [13, 25, 26]. In either rhlI – or lasI – bacteria, adding autoinducers to the growth media does not induce rhamnolipid secretion from the outset of the culture, indicating there is at least one other factor regulating rhlAB expression [13]. Here we illustrate our growth curve synchronization method by integrating high-resolution spectrophotometric measurements of cell density and gene expression with endpoint rhamnolipid quantification to produce multi-measurement time series of the latter.

Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2006, 103 (39) : 14560–14565 PubMedCrossRe

Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2006, 103 (39) : 14560–14565.PubMedCrossRef 10. Picardeau M, Bulach DM, Bouchier C, Zuerner RL, Zidane N, Wilson PJ, Creno S, Kuczek ES, Bommezzadri S, Davis JC, McGrath A, Johnson MJ, Boursaux-Eude C, Seemann T, Rouy Z, Coppel RL, Rood JI, Lajus A, Davies JK, Médigue C, Adler B: Genome sequence of learn more the saprophyte Leptospira biflexa provides insights into the evolution of Leptospira and the pathogenesis of leptospirosis.

PLoS One 2008, 3 (2) : e1607.PubMedCrossRef 11. Cullen PA, Haake DA, Adler B: Outer membrane proteins of pathogenic spirochetes. FEMS Microbiol Rev 2004, 28 (3) : 291–318.PubMedCrossRef 12. Haake DA, Champion CI, Martinich C, Shang ES, Blanco DR, Miller JN, Lovett MA: Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the gene encoding OmpL1, a transmembrane outer membrane protein of pathogenic Leptospira spp . J Bacteriol 1993, 175 (13) : 4225–4234.PubMed 13. Shang ES, Summers TA, Haake DA: Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the gene encoding LipL41, a surface-exposed lipoprotein of pathogenic Leptospira species. Infect Immun 1996, 64 (6) : 2322–2330.PubMed 14. Dong H, Hu Y, Xue F, Sun D, Ojcius DM, Mao Y, Yan J: Characterization of the ompL1 gene of pathogenic Leptospira species in China and cross-immunogenicity of the OmpL1 protein. BMC Microbiol 2008, 8: 223.PubMedCrossRef 15. Guerreiro

H, Croda J, Flannery B, Mazel M, Matsunaga J, Galvão Selleckchem Proteasome inhibitor Reis M, Levett PN, Ko AI, Haake DA: Leptospiral proteins recognized during the humoral immune response to leptospirosis in humans. Infect Immun 2001, 69 (8) : 4958–4968.PubMedCrossRef 16. Haake DA, Mazel MK, McCoy AM, Milward F, Chao G, Matsunaga J, Wagar EA: Leptospiral outer membrane proteins OmpL1 and LipL41 exhibit synergistic immunoprotection.

Infect Immun 1999, 67 (12) : 6572–6582.PubMed 17. Ding W, Yan J, Mao YF: Genotyping of LipL41 genes from Leptospira interrogans serogroups and immunological identification of the expression products. Chin J Microbiol Immunol 2004, 24 (11) : 859–865. 18. Xu Y, Yan J, Mao YF, Li LW, Li SP: Genotypes of the Non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase OmpL1 gene from the dominant serogroups of Leptospira interrogans in China and construction of prokaryotic expression system of the gene and immunological identification of the recombinant protein. Chin J Microbiol Immunol 2004, 24 (6) : 439–444. 19. Lin X, Chen Y, Yan J: Recombinant multiepitope protein for diagnosis of leptospirosis. Clin Vaccine Immunol 2008, 15 (11) : 1711–1714.PubMedCrossRef 20. Singh H, Raghava GPS: ProPred: Prediction of HLA-DR binding sites. Bioinformatics 2001, 17 (12) : 1236–1237.PubMedCrossRef 21. Lin X, Chen Y, Lu Y, Yan J, Yan J: Application of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for the detection of pathogenic Leptospira . Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2009, 63 (3) : 237–242.PubMedCrossRef 22.

28 mutant showed ~44% reduction in 24 h biofilm We propose that

28 mutant showed ~44% reduction in 24 h biofilm. We propose that several surface proteins Belinostat contribute to biofilm formation by M28-type strains including proteins AspA and Scl1.28, and potentially, proteins F1/SfbI and F2 that are also present in these strains [22]. This redundancy is likely responsible for the observed residual biofilms produced by the AspA- and Scl1.28-deficient

mutants. The observed heterogeneity in biofilm architecture of different GAS strains was previously observed by Lembke et al. [28] and was also documented in the current study using FESEM. In addition, here we report the differences in GAS-cell surface morphology and within cell-to-cell junctions in biofilms formed by M1- and M41-type strains. The structural and genetic determination of these differences is not known since M41 genome has not been sequenced, but may be associated with the presence of additional surface proteins, such as the F2 protein [55] encoded by prtf2 gene found in this strain [22]. Even more striking was an observed difference in the Epigenetics Compound Library supplier amount of the extracellular material associated with each strain, referred to as BAEM (bacteria-associated extracellular matrix). It has been shown that extracellular matrix, also called glycocalyx,

is produced by biofilm-forming bacteria. DNA, lipids, proteins [33], polysaccharides and dead cell debris [56] were identified in this matrix and for gram-positive bacteria, teichoic acids have also been detected [57, 58]. The exopolysaccharide

component of the glycocalyx is detected using carbohydrate-binding Resminostat lectins, such as concanavalin A (ConA) [10]. Both FESEM analysis and ConA staining detected more BAEM associated with M1 biofilm compared to M41, which produced larger biofilm. These observations suggest that GAS biofilm is stabilized differently by different strains and that higher BAEM production does not necessarily pre-determine larger biofilm mass. Consequently, a combination of biofilm features rather than biofilm size alone may be more relevant to pathogenicity of a given GAS strain. Diminished adherence and biofilm formation could be associated with changes in cell surface hydrophobicity [59] of the scl1 mutants. Indeed, the lack of Scl1 resulted in both decreased hydrophobicity and the ability to form biofilm, albeit in a somewhat disproportionate manner. A decrease in the hydrophobicity index by only ~8%, as compared to the wild type-strain, was measured for the M41Δscl1 mutant and this modest decrease was accompanied by a rather large reduction in biofilm formation capacity after 24 h by 30%. Greater decrease in cell-surface hydrophobicity was measured for the M1Δscl1 (~21%) and M28Δscl1 (~22%) mutants, which was accompanied by a significant loss in biofilm formation after 24 h by both isogenic strains by ~55% and ~41% (P ≤ 0.001 for each comparison), respectively. In addition, heterologous expression of Scl.41 in L.

Conclusions A wide range of investigations, from laboratory resea

Conclusions A wide range of investigations, from laboratory research, to animal feeding studies, to human supplementation trials, have confirmed the health benefits and traditional use of tongkat ali root extract. Laboratory evidence shows that eurycoma peptides stimulate release of free testosterone from its binding proteins and improve overall hormone profiles. More than a dozen rodent feeding studies have demonstrated improved

sex drive, see more balanced hormonal profiles, and enhanced physical function. Human supplementation trials show a clear indication of reduced fatigue, heightened energy and mood, and greater sense of well-being in subjects consuming tongkat ali root extracts. It is important to note that the majority of these studies, and all of the human supplementation trials, have been conducted on specific hot-water-extracts of Eurycoma longifolia (which is the traditional Malaysian preparation) produced using a patented extraction process to selleck products isolate and concentrate the bioactive compounds. In conclusion, tongkat ali, used for centuries in traditional medicine systems of Southeast Asia for treating lethargy, low libido, depression, and fatigue, appears to have significant potential for restoring hormone balance (cortisol/testosterone) and improving psychological mood state in humans exposed to various modern stressors, including aging, dieting, and exercise stress. References 1. Bhat R, Karim AA: Tongkat ali (Eurycoma longifolia Jack):

a review on its ethnobotany and pharmacological importance. Fitoterapia Histone demethylase 2010, 10:1–11. 2. Ali JM: Biochemical effect of Eurycoma longifolia jack on the sexual behavior, fertility, sex hormone, and glycolysis. Department of Biochemistry, University of Malaysia: PhD

Dissertation; 1993. 3. Adimoelja A: Phytochemicals and the breakthrough of traditional herbs in the management of sexual dysfunctions. Int J Androl 2000,23(Suppl 2):82–4.PubMedCrossRef 4. Cyranoski D: Malaysian researchers bet big on home-grown Viagra. Nat Med 2005,11(9):912.PubMedCrossRef 5. Joseph S, Sugumaran M, Kate L, Lee W: Herbs of Malaysia. An introduction to the medicinal, culinary, aromatic and cosmetic use of herbs. Sdn Berhad: Federal Publications; 2005. 6. Wan Hassan WE: Healing Herbs of Malaysia. Federal Land Development Authority (FELDA); 2007. 7. Zhari I, Norhayati I, Jaafar L: Malaysian herbal monograph. Malaysian Monograph Committee 1999 1999, 1:67–70. 8. Araujo AB, Wittert GA: Endocrinology of the aging male. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011,25(2):303–19.PubMedCrossRef 9. Traish AM, Miner MM, Morgentaler A, Zitzmann M: Testosterone deficiency. Am J Med 2011,124(7):578–87.PubMedCrossRef 10. Henning PC, Park BS, Kim JS: Physiological decrements during sustained military operational stress. Mil Med 2011,176(9):991–7.PubMed 11. Gatti R, De Palo EF: An update: salivary hormones and physical exercise. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2011,21(2):157–69.PubMedCrossRef 12. Miller KK: Androgen deficiency: effects on body composition.

These proteins belong to different families and have different bu

These proteins belong to different families and have different but well-established roles, yet all converge in a common role: involvement in the response to stress. Individually, SOD2 is well known as a major player in the elimination of ROS in all cells while GAPDH has been recognized as promoting resistance to oxidative stress in fungi. The two ion selleck inhibitor transporters identified in this work are important in overcoming the metal ion limitations imposed on invading pathogens by the human or animal host as a defence mechanism and provide the

necessary metal co-factors for SODs and other important proteins. The association of G protein alpha subunits to transport molecules reinforces the role of G proteins in the response to environmental signals and also highlights the involvement of fungal G protein alpha subunits in nutrient sensing in S. schenckii. These interactions suggest

that these permeases could function as transceptors for G proteins in fungi. Methods Strains and culture conditions S. schenckii (ATCC 58251) was used for all experiments. The yeast form of the fungus was obtained from conidia as previously described [76]. S. cerevisiae strains AH109 and Y187 were used for the yeast two-hybrid screening and were supplied with the MATCHMAKER Two-Hybrid System (Clontech Laboratories Inc., Palo Alto, CA, USA). Nucleic acids isolation Total RNA was obtained from S. schenckii yeast cells as described previously by us [25]. Poly A+ RNA was obtained from total RNA using the mRNA Purification selleck chemicals Kit from Amersham Biosciences (Piscataway, NJ, USA). Yeast two-hybrid assay MATCHMAKER Two-Hybrid

System was used for the yeast two-hybrid assay using all 3 different reporter genes for the confirmation of truly interacting proteins (Clontech Laboratories Inc.). For the construction of the SSG-1 bait plasmid, a pCR®2.1-TOPO® plasmid (Invitrogen Corp. Carlsbad, CA, USA) containing the ssg-1 gene cDNA sequence of S. schenckii from the laboratory collection was used as template for PCR to obtain the coding sequence of the ssg-1 gene. E. coli TOP10F’ One Shot® chemically competent cells (Invitrogen Corp.) containing the plasmid were grown in 3 ml of LB broth with kanamycin (50 μg/ml) at 37°C for 12 to 16 hours Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase and the plasmid isolated with the Fast Plasmid™ Mini kit (Brinkmann Instruments, Inc. Westbury, NY, USA). The ssg-1 insert was amplified by PCR using primers containing the gene sequence and an additional sequence containing an added restriction enzyme site. The Ready-to-Go™ Beads (Amersham Biosciences, GE Healthcare, Piscataway, NJ, USA) were used for PCR. The forward PCR primer included the adapter sequence added at the 5′ end containing the restriction site for Nde I was used to amplify the ssg-1 cDNA. The primers used were: SSG-1/NdeI/(fw) 5′ ccatatggccatgggttgcggaatgagtgtggaggag 3′ and SSG-1 (rev) 5′ gataagaccacatagacgcaagt 3′.

CENP-H expression was higher in tongue cancer cell lines and naso

CENP-H expression was higher in tongue cancer cell lines and nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines [20, 21]Therefore, to study centromere proteins may contributes to exploring

the mechanism of chromosome segregation, revealing the mechanism of malignant cellular proliferation and finding cancer marker proteins, and also may provide new targets for carcinoma therapy and prognosis estimation of cancer patients. Reduced expression of CENP-E in human hepatocellular carcinoma CENP-E is also one of the components directly responsible for capturing and stabilizing spindle microtubules by kinetochores [9, 10]. CENP-E interacts with BubR1 and stimulates its kinase activity, which implicates click here its role in activating and maintaining mitotic checkpoint signalling [6, 19]. Deletion CENP-E by various methods could impair the function of spindle checkpoint [9, 12]. In this study we found TSA HDAC chemical structure that the mRNA and protein expression levels of CENP-E were reduced both in HCC tissues and in human hepatocellular carcinoma-derived cell lines (HepG2), and that the LO2 cells transfected with shRNA vector had a decreased

proliferation rate and an increased proportion of aneuploid and apoptosis cells. Reduced expression of CENP-E may be involved in human hepatocarcinogenesis Our evidence presents that the level of CENP-E protein was reduced in the HCC tissues, which implicates that CENP-E may be involved in human hepatocarcinogenesis. We draw this conclusion from two aspects as follows: (1) Aneuploidy is related with tumorigenesis. A majority of human cancer cells are aneuploid due to an underlying chromosomal instability phenotype [22]. Theodor Boveri proposed an aneuploid hypothesis, in which, aneuploid was presumed as a direct cause of cancerous transformation [23]. With the discovery of oncogenes and tumour suppressors in the late 1970s and 1980s, some researchers suggested that heterozygosity

loss might result in the phenotypic expression of mutated tumour suppressor genes in the aneuploid cell, and aneuploid cells may show chromosome polysomy that harbours oncogenes [24]. Aneuploid is still an important cause of tumorigenesis, and oncogenes hypothesis also supports this SPTLC1 point, although there is no direct evidence to confirm that aneuploidy is a primary contributor to tumorigenesis up to now.   (2) Cancer is associated with weakened spindle checkpoint. A growing body of evidence suggests that defects in the spindle checkpoint might promote aneuploidy and tumorigenesis. Mouse with reduced expression of spindle checkpoint proteins survived but developed aneuploidy at an elevated rate, and in some, but not all cases, these animals are more susceptible to spontaneous tumours [25, 26] Cells over-expressing Mad2 developed a large number of chromosome breaks, fragments, and fusions in addition to whole chromosomal aneuploidy [27].


pleuropneumoniae BGB324 concentration [25] and loss of the ability in colonizing in the gastric mucosa in Helicobacter pylori[26] after frdA genes were inactivated. Furthermore, Joseph et al. described FrdA as an antigen in Brucella abortus [27]. FepA, FrpB and HbpA are important components in several ABC transport pathways for obtaining iron or regulating iron utilization in vivo or vitro. The immunogenic activity of FepA and FrpB was shown in Klebsiella pneumoniae [28] and Neisseria meningitides

[29] respectively, and HbpA was widely conserved and served as an antigen in Leptospira interrogans[30]. Moreover, homologous analysis of these proteins at NCBI revealed a high level identity (>98%) with the sequenced serotype CHIR98014 price 1, 5 and 7 strains respectively. These suggest that they might be new common antigens for A. pleuropneumoniae. High-affinity zinc uptake system protein ZnuA precursor, was essential of B. abortus for intracellular survival and virulence in mice[31] and shown immunogenic in Streptococcus suis[5]. PsaA is needed for the adherence of pneumococcal cells and antibodies to PsaA contributed to reduce the nasopharyngeal colonization

of challenged pneumococcal cells [32, 33]. DegPs, a member of the widely conserved HtrA family of serine proteases, were frequently identified as antigens in other pathogens, such as B. abortus [34] and Chlamydia trachomatis [35]. Besides, trigger factor (TIG) has been demonstrated to be an excellent candidate for vaccination against Brucella melitensis [36] and a virulence-related protein in Listeria monocytogenes [37], and similar findings were described about malate dehydrogenase (MDH) of Candida albicans [38] and spermidine/putrescine-binding

periplasmic protein (PotD) of Streptococcus pneumoniae [39]. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GapA) has been proven to be antigenically conserved proteins, suggesting potential for vaccines in several microorganisms [40]. Homologous protein of translation elongation factor EF-Tu (TufB), a very abundant protein, had been detected oxyclozanide in immunological researches of other bacteria, such as C. trachomatis[41] and Shigella flexneri[7]. The periplasm of gram-negative bacteria is well equipped with ATP-independent chaperones and folding catalysts, including peptidyl-prolyl isomerases (FkpA). It is reported recently that FkpA was found to be immunogenic in Bordetella pertussis[42]. Phosphate acetyltransferase (PTA), an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible transfer of the acetyl group from acetyl phosphate to coenzyme A plays a major role in the energy-yielding metabolism[43] and recently has been reported to be immunogenic in S. suis[5].


there are few reports on β-galactosidases obtain


there are few reports on β-galactosidases obtained via metagenomic strategies up to now. Recently, a novel β-galactosidase gene, zd410, was isolated by screening a soil metagenomic library [18]. Nevertheless, this enzyme was regarded as a cold-adapted β-galactosidase due to its optimal temperature of 38°C and 54% residual activity at 20°C. Thus, identification of novel β-galactosidases with high thermostability and low inhibition of reaction product via metagenomic strategy is still urgently in demand. In the present study, a metagenomic library from soil samples of Turpan Basin, the hottest and driest area in China, was constructed, and a novel β-galactosidase (Gal308) was identified and expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli). The enzymatic properties of Gal308 with N-terminal fusion tag were investigated after purification, and this enzyme displayed several novel properties including high thermostability, high tolerance of galactose and glucose, as well as high enzymatic activity for lactose. These properties Trichostatin A mouse make it a good candidate in the production of low-lactose milk and dairy products after further study. Results Screening for β-galactosidase from a metagenomic library

To discover novel thermostable β-galactosidases, a metagenomic library consisting of approximately 8,000 clones was constructed using DNA extracted from soil samples of the Mountain of Flames of the Turpan Basin in China. Restriction analysis of 20 randomly selected clones from

metagenomic library indicated that 95% of clones contained inserts of 2.5 to 7.5 kb in size, with an average size of 4.2 kb. Thus, the metagenomic library covered theoretically about 33.6 MB of soil microbial community DNA. One positive clone with bright blue color was finally identified from the metagenomic library. The activity of the positive clone was reconfirmed after retransformation, and then the plasmid of this clone was extracted and an insert of 5215 bp was sequenced. The ORF-finder and blastX analysis revealed the presence of an open reading frame of 1977 bp, which encoded a glycoside Cyclin-dependent kinase 3 hydrolase family 42 (GH family 42) protein (Gal308) of 658 amino acids. A protein blast (blastp) search in the databases of NCBI indicated that the protein had the highest identity of 49% (291/599) with the β-galactosidase from one thermophilic microbe Geobacillus thermocatenulatus, as well as a low identity of only 38% (224/593) with the β-galactosidase from the other thermophilic microbe Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum DSM 571, suggesting that Gal308 is probably a novel thermostable β-galactosidase from unculturable microorganisms. In addition, multiple sequence alignment of Gal308 and other five homologous β-galactosidases from GH family 42 allowed the identification of the active site residues of Gal308 (Figure 1).

Thanks to this optical behavior, GNRs are able to transform the a

Thanks to this optical behavior, GNRs are able to transform the absorbed energy into localized heat. This optical effect is used to develop cancer therapies as photothermal tumor destruction either by direct enough increase of selleck chemicals llc temperature or indirectly by co-adjuvant drugs, at the same time delivered by the particle, or already present and activated by the heating [5–8]. Our research group has recently developed an optical hyperthermia device based on irradiation of GNRs with a continuous wave (CW) laser in order to induce in vitro death of human brain astrocytoma cells (1321 N1) [9]. Unlike many high-energy pulsed lasers that generally

lead to particle

structure changes and ablation in a very short time, CW lasers allow heat dissipation from particles to surrounding medium (via phonon-phonon relaxation), so they are an appropriate choice in order to use the produced heat for the Fedratinib chemical structure cure of cancer [10]. The effectiveness of the developed method was determined by measuring changes in cell viability after laser irradiation of cells in the presence of GNRs. In accordance to other results in comparable experiments [11–13], ours indicated that continuous laser irradiation in the presence of the particles induced a significant decrease in cell viability, while no decrease in cell viability was observed with laser irradiation or incubation with GNRs alone. Due to the limited capacity of laser penetration in tissues, this method could be used in clinical practice as an additional aid to surgery

for removing brain tumors completely. After this proof of concept, our objective was focused in getting a better understanding about the working principles and physical behavior of optical hyperthermia devices. It is not very common to find GPX6 studies including a comprehensive characterization about the global phenomena in optical hyperthermia systems. Moreover, although now there are a huge variety of noble metal nanoparticles that can be used to carry out this kind of therapy, an absolute control about their behavior still does not exist. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a series of characterization and modeling processes to increase the effectiveness of the hyperthermia treatments, thanks to the prediction of the system response. With this aim, a method to calculate the thermal parameters of the system and the photothermal transduction efficiency for different kinds of nanoparticles has been developed. This method, which allows an easy and effective thermal characterization and so predicts the thermal behavior of the system, is not only valid for our device but also for any kind of optical hyperthermia system.

Microbiology 2011,157(4):988–999 PubMedCrossRef 8 Lane WJ, Darst

Microbiology 2011,157(4):988–999.PubMedCrossRef 8. Lane WJ, Darst SA: The structural basis for promoter −35 element recognition Transmembrane Transporters inhibitor by the group IV sigma factors. PLoS Biol 2006,4(9):e269.PubMedCrossRef 9. Lambert C, Smith MCM, Sockett RE: A Novel assay to monitor predator–prey interactions for Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109 J reveals a role for methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins in predation. Environ Microbiol 2003,5(2):127–132.PubMedCrossRef

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M, Rendulic S, Schuster SC, Aizawa S, Sockett RE: Characterizing the flagellar filament and the role of motility in bacterial prey-penetration by Bdellovibrio BIBF 1120 supplier bacteriovorus. Mol Microbiol 2006,60(2):274–286.PubMedCrossRef 12. Guisbert E, Yura T, Rhodius VA, Gross CA: Convergence of molecular, modeling, and systems approaches for an understanding of the Escherichia coli heat shock response. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 2008,72(3):545–554.PubMedCrossRef 13. Gupta P, Aggarwal N, Batra P, Mishra S, Chaudhuri TK: Co-expression of chaperonin GroEL/GroES enhances in vivo folding of yeast mitochondrial aconitase and alters the growth characteristics of Escherichia coli. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2006,38(11):1975–1985.PubMedCrossRef 14. Clare DK, Bakkes PJ, van Heerikhuizen H, van der Vies SM, Saibil HR: Chaperonin complex with a newly folded protein encapsulated in the folding chamber. Nature 2009,457(7225):107–110.PubMedCrossRef 15. Lambert C, Chang CY, Capeness MJ, Sockett RE: The first tetracosactide bite–profiling the predatosome in the bacterial pathogen Bdellovibrio. PLoS One 2010,5(1):e8599.PubMedCrossRef 16. Li J, Wang Y, Zhang CY, Zhang WY, Jiang DM, Wu ZH, Liu H, Li YZ: Myxococcus xanthus viability depends on groEL supplied by either of two genes,

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