6%) and women had learned it from parents (37 5%) or at school (3

6%) and women had learned it from parents (37.5%) or at school (33.7%). Genital sensation was normal in 7.2%, 53.3% and 53.5% of the patients in groups 1 to 3, respectively. Patients in group 3 had more frequent sexual intercourse than those in group 1 or 2 (30% vs 14.3% and 14.2%, respectively). Genital sensation was decreased in group 4 patients compared to those in groups 5 and 6 (44.4% vs 13% and 3.5%, respectively). Patients in group 4 were more sexually active than those in groups 5 and 6 (p <0.05).

Lesion level did not affect the ability to form relationships in patients of either gender. Education level was the same across all patients with no difference when male/female groups were compared by lesion level. Predictors indicated that patients with the highest chance of finding a partner and engaging in sexual activity were those with the lowest lesion level. However, all other Selleckchem BMS202 predictors were statistically significant (p <0.05).

Conclusions: Sex counseling should be part of the regular medical care in patients with Spina bifida. A difference exists between males and females when comparing lesion level and sexual activity.”
“Purpose: Intra-abdominal testes can be treated with several surgical procedures. We evaluated factors influencing the outcome of orchiopexy for intra-abdominal


Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 156 consecutive selleck chemicals orchiopexies performed for intra-abdominal testis,

defined as a nonpalpable click here testis on examination and located in the abdomen at surgery. All surgical approaches were included in the study. Primary outcome was the overall success rate and secondary outcomes were success based on surgical approach, age and a patent processus vaginalis. Success was considered a testis with normal texture and size compared to the contralateral. testis at followup. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine factors predictive of success.

Results: The overall success rate of all orchicipexies was 79.5%. Median patient age at orchiopexy was 12 months and mean followup was 16 months. Of the patients 117 had a patent processus vaginalis at surgery. One-stage abdominal orchiopexy was performed in 92 testes with 89.1% success. Of these cases 32 were performed laparoscopically with 96.9% success. One-stage Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy was performed in 27 testes and 2-stage Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy was performed in 37 with success in 63.0% and 67.6%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that 1-stage orchiopexy without vessel division had more successful outcomes than 1 and 2-stage Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy (OR 0.24, p = 0.007 and 0.29, p = 0.19, respectively). Neither age at surgery nor an open internal ring was significant (p = 0.49 and 0.12, respectively).

Conclusions: The overall success of orchiopexy for intra-abdominal testis is 79.5%.

These issues are discussed, and the existing results on relations

These issues are discussed, and the existing results on relations of regional volume, white matter Selleckchem Cl-amidine hyperintensities, and diffusion tensor imaging measures of white matter

integrity to age and to measures of cognitive functioning are reviewed. It is concluded that at the current time the evidence that these aspects of brain structure are neuroanatomical substrates of age-related cognitive decline is weak. The final section contains several suggestions concerning measurement and methodology that may lead to stronger conclusions in the future.”
“Measles virus (MV), one of the most contagious viruses infecting humans, causes a systemic infection leading to fever, immune suppression, and Cyclopamine a characteristic maculopapular rash. However, the specific mechanism or mechanisms responsible for the spread of MV into the respiratory epithelium in the late stages of the disease are unknown. Here we show the crucial role of

PVRL4 in mediating the spread of MV from immune to epithelial cells by generating a PVRL4 “”blind”" recombinant wild-type MV and developing a novel in vitro coculture model of B cells with primary differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial cells. We utilized the macaque model of measles to analyze virus distribution in the respiratory tract prior to and at the peak of MV replication. Expression of PVRL4 was widespread in both the lower and upper respiratory tract (URT) of macaques, indicating MV transmission can be facilitated by more than only epithelial cells of the trachea. Analysis of tissues collected at early time points after experimental MV infection demonstrated

the presence of MV-infected lymphoid and myeloid cells contacting respiratory tract epithelium in the absence of infected epithelial cells, suggesting that these immune cells seed the infection in vivo. Thereafter, lateral cell-to-cell selleck chemical spread of MV led to the formation of large foci of infected cells in the trachea and high levels of MV infection in the URT, particularly in the nasal cavity. These novel findings have important implications for our understanding of the high transmissibility of measles.”
“This article introduces the notion of genetic essentialist biases: cognitive biases associated with essentialist thinking that are elicited when people encounter arguments that genes are relevant for a behavior, condition, or social group. Learning about genetic attributions for various human conditions leads to a particular set of thoughts regarding those conditions: they are more likely to be perceived as (a) immutable and determined, (b) having a specific etiology, (c) homogeneous and discrete, and (d) natural, which can lead to the naturalistic fallacy.

DNA vaccines are a promising new strategy for the rapid developme

DNA vaccines are a promising new strategy for the rapid development of efficient vaccines to control

new emerging pandemic influenza viruses. Crown Copyright (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V. All CB-839 rights reserved.”
“Systemic administration of the mGlu5 receptor antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP) was previously shown to selectively attenuate nicotine self-administration without affecting food-maintained responding in rats. Glutamatergic neurotransmission in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) shell plays an important role in the reinforcing effects of nicotine. To determine the brain sites that may mediate the systemic effects of MPEP on nicotine self-administration, the present study investigated the effects of MPEP microinfusions into the VTA or the NAcc shell on nicotine and food self-administration in separate groups of rats. Administration of low MPEP doses (0, 0.5, 1, and 2 mu g/0.5 mu l/side) microinfused into the NAcc shell had no effect on nicotine self-administration, whereas higher MPEP doses (0, 10, 20, and 40 mu g/0.5 mu l/side) microinfused into the NAcc

shell dose-dependently attenuated check details nicotine self-administration without affecting food-maintained responding. Microinfusions of MPEP into the VTA (0, 10, 20, and 40 mu g/0.5 mu l/side) significantly decreased both nicotine and food self-administration Molecular motor at 20 mu g/0.5 mu l/side but did not affect responding for either reinforcer at 40 mu g/0.5 mu l/side. This lack of effect of 40 mu g/0.5 mu l/side MPEP on either nicotine or food self-administration when administered into the VTA may be attributable either to actions of MPEP at presynaptic mG1u5 receptors or at targets other than mG1u5 receptors. Importantly, anatomical control injections 2 mm above the NAcc shell or the VTA using the most effective MPEP dose in the two regions did not result in attenuation of nicotine self-administration. In conclusion, MPEP microinfusions in the VTA or NAcc shell

attenuates the reinforcing effects of nicotine possibly via blockade of mG1u5 receptors located in these regions. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3), or koi herpesvirus (KHV), is responsible for high mortalities in aquaculture of both common carp (Cyprinus carpi carpio) and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio koi) worldwide. The complete genomes of three CyHV-3 isolates showed more than 99% of DNA sequence identity, with the majority of differences located in short tandem repeats, also called VNTR (variable number of tandem repeats). By targeting these variations, eight loci were selected for genotyping CyHV-3 by multiple locus VNTR analysis (MLVA).

Indications were respiratory failure (8/16, 50%), severe pulmonar

Indications were respiratory failure (8/16, 50%), severe pulmonary hypertension (5/16, 31%), and cardiopulmonary collapse (3/16, 19%). Four of these patients (27%) also required postoperative support. Six (40%) were

weaned before lung transplant. Six (40%) survived to hospital discharge. Survival to discharge was higher among patients weaned before lung transplant (4/6, 66% vs 2/9, 22%). Twenty-two patients (median age, 9.4 years; range, 0.2-21 years) underwent 24 extracorporeal membrane oxygenation runs after lung transplant. Indications for postoperative support were primary graft dysfunction (18/24, 75%), pneumonia (4/24, 16%), and others (2/24, 9%). Median time between lung transplant and institution of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was 32 hours (range, 0-1084 hours); median duration find more of support was 141 hours (range, 48-505 hours). Five of these patients (23%) survived to hospital discharge. Among nonsurvivors, causes of death were intractable respiratory failure Blasticidin S (12/17, 70%) and infectious complications (4/17, 24%).

Conclusions: Need for perioperative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support is associated with significant morbidity and mortality among pediatric patients receiving lung transplants. A subset of patients who can be weaned from support preoperatively have greater likelihood of survival. (J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2010; 140: 427-32)”
“It is known that the number of newly generated neurons is increased in the

young and adult rodent subventricular zone (SVZ) and dentate gyrus (DG) after transient brain ischemia. However, it remains unclear whether increase in neurogenesis in the adult DG induced by ischemic stroke is transient or sustained. We here reported that from 2 weeks to 6 months after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), there were more doublecortin positive (DCX+) cells in the ipsilateral compared to the sham-control and contralateral DG of the adult rat. After the S-phase marker 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected 2 days after MCAO to label LY294002 newly generated cells, a large number of BrdU-labeled neuroblasts differentiated into mature granular neurons. These BrdU-labeled neurons survived for at least

6 months. When BrdU was injected 6 weeks after injury, there were still more newly generated neuroblasts differentiated into mature neurons in the ipsilateral DG. Altogether, our data indicate that transient brain ischemia initiates a prolonged increase in neurogenesis and promotes the normal development of the newly generated neurons in the adult DG. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: Owing to the improved long-term outcome after cardiac transplantation, cardiac allograft vasculopathy or valvular disease is developing late after heart transplantation in a growing number of patients. In this study, we evaluated our results of nonretransplant cardiac surgery in these patients and compared them with those after retransplantation.

2 +/- 1 6 to 2 0 +/- 1 9 (p < 0 05) At the end of the study 6

2 +/- 1.6 to 2.0 +/- 1.9 (p < 0.05). At the end of the study 6 of 15 patients (40%) had a full response and 5 (33%) had a partial response, while 4 implantable pulse www.selleckchem.com/products/incb28060.html generator devices (27%) were explanted because of failure.

Conclusions: Sacral neuromodulation is feasible in the pediatric population, with good short-term (78% full or partial response) and satisfactory long-term results (73%). Sacral neuromodulation can offer good results for overactive bladder, dysfunctional elimination syndrome and Fowler syndrome. Pudendal nerve stimulation is a feasible salvage treatment that can be useful in cases when S3 implantation is impossible or unsuccessful.”

We investigated the ability to perform a clinical proteomic study using samples collected at different times from two independent clinical sites.

Experimental Design:

Label-free 2-D-LC-MS proteomic analysis was used to differentially quantify tens of thousands of peptides from human plasma. We have asked whether samples collected from two sites, when analyzed by this type of peptide profiling, reproducibly contain detectable peptide markers that are differentially expressed 4SC-202 in the plasma of disease (advanced renal cancer) patients relative to healthy normals.

Results: We have demonstrated that plasma proteins enriched in disease patients are indeed detected reproducibly in both clinical collections. Regression analysis, unsupervised hierarchical clustering and PCA detected no systematic bias in the data related to site of sample collection and processing. Using a genetic algorithm, support vector machine classification method, we were able to correctly classify disease samples at 88% sensitivity and 94% Methylitaconate Delta-isomerase specificity using the second site as an independent validation set.

Conclusions and clinical relevance: We conclude that multiple site collection, when analyzed by label-free 2-D-LC-MS, generates data that are

sufficiently reproducible to guide reliable biomarker discovery.”
“Purpose: Genital development is affected by pubertal process to a great extent, and puberty is a complex phenomenon that is influenced by multiple factors resulting in individual differences. We studied penile length and its relationship to pubertal stage in boys 13 to 15 years old.

Materials and Methods: Healthy boys who were candidates for military high school were evaluated between June and July 2011. Age, residence and body mass index were recorded. Stretched penile length was measured. Pubic hair was assessed according to Tanner and Marshall staging. Genital puberty stage was defined by measurement of testicular volume with Prader orchidometer. Relationship of penile length to age, residence, pubertal stages and body mass index was evaluated statistically.

Results: A total of 1,539 boys were included in the study. Mean ages and number of patients according to genital stage were as follows. Mean age was 14 years for genital stage 1 (5 patients), 13.

Conclusions: Both probiotic cultures, B26 and B33, had unique phe

Conclusions: Both probiotic cultures, B26 and B33, had unique phenotypic characteristics and showed a broad spectrum of antibiotic resistance against varying pathogenic bacteria.

Significance https://www.selleckchem.com/products/ldk378.html and Impact of the Study: The results of this study contribute to new information and significance of carnobacterial species.”
“OBJECTIVE: Neurophysiological intraoperative monitoring of the glossopharyngeal nerve has been performed

only with needle electrodes inserted into the pharyngeal muscles or soft palate. We describe a noninvasive method of monitoring this cranial nerve.

METHODS: A 30-year-old man who presented with headache, as well as speech and swallowing difficulty, underwent surgical resection of a right vagus nerve Schwannoma. Neurophysiological intraoperative monitoring of multiple lower cranial nerves, including the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves, was performed.

RESULTS: The glossopharyngeal nerve was monitored with an adhesive surface electrode mounted on the cuff of a laryngeal mask airway, and the vagus nerve was monitored with a similar electrode mounted on the endotracheal tube. Successful monitoring allowed separation of the glossopharyngeal nerve from the tumor, and there was no postoperative swallowing deficit.

CONCLUSION: Monitoring of the glossopharyngeal nerve with surface electrodes is possible

and reliable, but it must be combined with vagus nerve monitoring.”
“Aims: To DAPT research buy compare rhamnose MacConkey agar supplemented with cefixime and tellurite (CT-RMac) and tryptone bile X-glucuronide (TBX) agars as isolation media for Vero cytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) serogroup O26 from animal faeces.

Methods and Results: Nine VTEC O26 were isolated from sheep faeces; out of which six were isolated only on CT-RMac and one was isolated only on TBX. One hundred and twelve VTEC O26 were isolated from calf faeces; out of which 97% were from CT-RMac and 52% were from TBX. In a study of E. coli O26 strains,

84% of VT-positive O26 did not ferment rhamnose when compared with 16% of VT-negative O26. VT-positive (19%) and VT-negative (39%) E. coli O26 strains did not grow on CT-RMac agar.

Conclusions: It is important to consider that VTEC O26 strains either may ferment rhamnose or may be sensitive to the CT supplement Diflunisal of CT-RMac agar.

Significance and Impact of the Study: This work compares CT-RMac and TBX agars as isolation medium for VTEC O26 from Scottish animal faeces and highlights that VTEC O26 may be missed if only CT-RMac agar is used.”
“OBJECTIVE: Despite new endovascular techniques and technological advances in microsurgery, the treatment of giant intracranial aneurysms is still a daunting neurosurgical task. Many of these aneurysms have a large, calcified neck, directly involve parent and collateral branches, and are partly thrombosed.

Perioperative death and morbidity, location of proximal aortic cl

Perioperative death and morbidity, location of proximal aortic clamp, management of the left renal vein, associated iliac aneurysmal or occlusive diseases, the type of surgical reconstruction, operating time, and lengths of stay in the intensive care unit and the hospital were recorded. All the data were compared between the two groups.

Results: Retroperitoneal approach, suprarenal clamping, left renal vein division, PKC inhibitor and longer operating room time were statistically more common in group 2 (36.9% vs 12.3%, P = .002; 15.2% vs 3.1%, P = .032; 23.9% vs 7.7%, P = .026; and 117 +/- 8 min vs 95 +/- 7 min,

P < .001, respectively). Although group 2 had significantly more iliac aneurysms (52.1% vs 32.3%; P = .036), the number of bifurcated reconstructions was comparable. The overall perioperative

mortality rate was 1.8% (2 of 111), and the figures for groups 1 and 2 were comparable (3.1% vs 0%; P = .510). No deaths were cardiac related. Group 2 had a significantly higher incidence of kidney failure (8.7% vs 0%; P = .027). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed an overall 3-, 5-, and 10-year survival rate of 80.6%, 67.2%, and 59.4%, respectively, with selleckchem a 3- and 5-year survival rate comparable between groups 1 and 2 (77.8% and 66.7% vs 87.8% and 45.8%, respectively; log-rank test, P = .921).

Conclusions: Octogenarians can tolerate OAR with acceptable rates of perioperative mortality and morbidity. Although the

complexity of OAR has increased significantly Ceritinib research buy in the era of EVAR, the perioperative outcome has not changed.”
“Endocannabinoids (eCBs) mediate transient and long-lasting synaptic plasticity in several brain structures. In the dentate gyrus, activation of the type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) by exogenous ligands reportedly depresses excitatory synaptic transmission. However, direct evidence of eCB signaling at excitatory synapses in this region has been lacking. Here, we demonstrate that eCB release can be induced by a brief postsynaptic depolarization of dentate granule cells (DGCs), which potently and transiently suppresses glutamatergic inputs from mossy cell interneurons (MCs) but not from entorhinal cortex via the lateral and medial perforant paths. This input-specific depolarization-induced suppression of excitation (DSE) is calcium-dependent and can be modulated by agonists of cholinergic and group I metabotropic glutamate receptors. Inhibiting the synthesis of 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), one of the most abundant eCBs in the brain, by diacyglycerol lipase (DGL) does not abolish DSE. Moreover, preventing the breakdown of anandamide, the other main eCB, does not potentiate DSE. Thus, eCB signaling underlying DSE in the dentate does not require DGL activity and is unlikely to be mediated by anandamide.

Moreover, these signaling pathways were activated in cocultured B

Moreover, these signaling pathways were activated in cocultured BL cells and in epithelial cells. Finally, we observed that viral replication was induced in cocultured BL cells. Taken together, our data suggest that cell-to-cell contact induces multiple cell signaling pathways in

BL cells and epithelial cells, contributing to the induction of the viral lytic cycle in BL cells and the enhancement of viral transmission to epithelial cells.”
“BACKGROUND: The use of posterior instrumentation constructs is well established for subaxial cervical stabilizations/fusions. The importance of global and regional sagittal alignment has become increasingly recognized.

OBJECTIVE: To perform an analysis using computed tomography scans to determine the ACY-738 purchase effect of posterior instrumentation on postoperative cervical Selleckchem OTX015 sagittal alignment at long-term follow-up.

METHODS: Over a period of 6 years, 56 consecutive patients (38 male and 18 female patients; mean age, 47 years) underwent cervical screw-rod fixation. Plain radiographs, computed tomography scans, and magnetic resonance images were analyzed preoperatively to assess sagittal alignment (C2-C7). Postoperatively, computed tomography scans and serial radiographs were obtained in all patients. With the use of independent observers, changes in sagittal alignment were determined by comparing the preoperative and postoperative imaging studies.

RESULTS: In total,

390 screws were placed in the cervical spines of 56 patients. Definitive radiographic fusion was detected in all 56 patients (100%). There were no incidences of instrumentation failures or lucencies surrounding any screws. Patients with preoperative kyphosis (n = 19; mean, +9.9 degrees) improved their sagittal alignment by 6.5 degrees (final mean, +3.4 degrees), whereas patients with preoperative lordosis (n = 37; mean -15.44 degrees) Resminostat maintained

their lordosis (final mean, -15.3 degrees). Mean duration of follow-up was 32.5 months.

CONCLUSION: Radiographic analysis showed lateral mass fixation to be safe and effective. Certain operative techniques allowed substantial deformity correction and maintenance of long-term correction of deformity. Screw-rod fixation may be an effective method for maintaining lordotic cervical alignment in previously lordotic patients and for significantly correcting kyphotic deformity in patients with a preoperative kyphosis.”
“Background. African-Caribbean and black African people living in the UK are reported to have a higher incidence of diagnosed psychosis compared with white British people. It has been argued that this may be a consequence of misdiagnosis. If this is true they might be less likely to show the patterns of structural brain abnormalities reported in white British patients. The aim of this study therefore was to investigate whether there are differences in the prevalence of structural brain abnormalities in white and black first-episode psychosis patients.


Acute treatment with NE-100 dose-dependently (10-30 mg/kg) reduce

Acute treatment with NE-100 dose-dependently (10-30 mg/kg) reduced 1- and 3-h intake of 10% ethanol solution in sP rats, while increasing concurrent water intake and not affecting food intake. NE-100 (17.8-30 mg/kg) comparably reduced intake of the 28% ethanol solution, while not suppressing 1.25% sucrose solution intake, AZD5153 ic50 suggesting selectivity of action against ethanol intake. Acute NE-100 (30 mg/kg) also prevented an increase in ethanol intake after a 7-day deprivation period. Repeated, daily NE-100 (30 mg/kg) treatment continued to reduce 24-h ethanol intake across 7 days of administration, with some, but incomplete,

tolerance, evident by day 6.

The results implicate the Sig-1R system in alcohol drinking, identifying

a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of alcohol use disorders.”
“Integrase (IN) strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) have been developed to inhibit the ability of HIV-1 integrase to irreversibly link the reverse-transcribed viral DNA to the host genome. INSTIs have proven their high efficiency in inhibiting viral replication in vitro and in patients. However, first-generation INSTIs have only a modest genetic barrier to resistance, allowing the virus to escape these powerful drugs through several resistance pathways. Second-generation INSTIs, such as dolutegravir (DTG, S/GSK1349572), have been reported to H 89 order have a higher resistance barrier, and no novel drug resistance mutation has yet been described for this drug. Therefore, we performed in vitro selection experiments with DTG using viruses of subtypes B, C, and A/G and showed that the most common mutation to emerge was R263K. Further analysis by site-directed mutagenesis Regorafenib cost showed that R263K does confer low-level resistance to DTG and decreased integration in cell culture without altering reverse transcription. Biochemical cell-free assays performed with purified IN enzyme containing R263K confirmed the absence of major resistance against DTG and showed a slight

decrease in 3′ processing and strand transfer activities compared to the wild type. Structural modeling suggested and in vitro IN-DNA binding assays show that the R263K mutation affects IN-DNA interactions.”
“Mice lacking the NK1 receptor (NK1R-/- mice) and selective, high-affinity, non-peptide, NK1, NK2 and NK3 receptor antagonists were used to identify the tachykinin receptor subtype(s) mediating the central responses induced by neurokinin A (NKA). The peptides, substance P (SP), NKA and senktide and the antagonists were injected intracerebroventricularly (ICV) through an implanted cannula. NKA (50 pmol) was as potent as SP (50 pmol) in inducing grooming behaviour (face washing and hind limb grooming) in wild-type mice, but both peptides failed to induce behavioural responses in NK1R-/- mice.

METHODS: The authors retrospectively identified 184 aneurysms mea

METHODS: The authors retrospectively identified 184 aneurysms measuring 20 mm or larger (85 very large, 99 giant) treated at Stanford University Medical Center between 1984 and 2008. Clinical data including age, presentation, and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score were recorded, along with aneurysm size, location, and morphology. Type of

treatment was noted and clinical outcome measured using the mRS score at final follow-up. Angiographic outcomes were completely occluded, occluded with residual neck, partly obliterated, or patent click here with modified flow.

RESULTS: After multivariate analysis, risk factors for poor clinical outcome included a baseline mRS score of 2 or higher (odds ratio [OR], 0.23; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.08-0.66; P = .01), aneurysm size of 25 mm or larger (OR, 3.32; 95% CI: 1.51-7.28; P < .01), and posterior circulation location (OR, 0.18; 95% CI: 0.07-0.43; P < .01).

Risk factors for incomplete angiographic obliteration included fusiform morphology (OR, 0.25; 95% CI: 0.10-0.66; P < .01), posterior circulation location (OR, 0.33; 95% CI: 0.13-0.83; P = .02), and endovascular treatment (OR, 0.14; 95% CI: 0.06-0.32; P < .01). Patients with incompletely occluded aneurysms experienced higher rates of posttreatment PCI-32765 solubility dmso subarachnoid hemorrhage and had increased mortality compared with those with completely obliterated aneurysms.

CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that patients with poor baseline functional status, giant aneurysms, and aneurysms in the posterior circulation had a significantly higher proportion of poor outcomes at final follow-up. Fusiform morphology, posterior circulation location, and endovascular treatment were risk factors for incompletely obliterated aneurysms.”
“Objective: Left ventricular assist devices are used in patients with end-stage dilated cardiomyopathy as a “”bridge to recovery.”" However, physiologic and histologic changes under prolonged mechanical unloading have not been elucidated.

Thus, we investigated these changes in the rat heart with dilated cardiomyopathy under mechanical unloading after heterotopic transplantation.

Methods: Six weeks after induction of autoimmunized dilated cardiomyopathy in Lewis rats, 2 types of hearts were compared triclocarban (n=6 each): (1) an unloaded dilated cardiomyopathy heart (DCM-UL) and (2) a dilated cardiomyopathy heart (DCM). The hearts were evaluated 2 and 4 weeks after transplantation.

Results: Four weeks after transplantation, developed tension of the papillary muscle (indicator of myocardial contractility) and beta-adrenergic response to isoproterenol were better in DCM-UL than in DCM (P=0.0025 and P<0.0001, respectively). However, half-relaxation time of the papillary muscle (indicator of myocardial relaxation) was worse in the DCM-UL group (P<.0001).