92–0 00)/16 92] × 100 Thus, the value of encapsulation efficienc

92–0.00)/16.92] × 100. Thus, the value of encapsulation efficiency is around 100% or greater than 98.63% if the limit of detection is subtracted from the total concentration of bixin. The high encapsulation efficiency indicates that all bixin in the suspension was present in the nanocapsule structure (inner part and wall). Such high encapsulation efficiency occurred probably due to the nanocapsule core which contains triglycerides (CCT), which facilitates

solubilisation of bixin; this further indicates that nanoencapsulation is an effective technique learn more for improving the solubilisation of bixin in aqueous media. The microencapsulation of bixin in different food polymers has been reported to achieve a maximum efficiency of 86.4% (Barbosa et al., 2005). The optimal Ibrutinib bixin nanocapsule suspension presented a yellow colour with the following CIELAB coordinates of L∗ = 73.67 ± 0.34, a∗ = 6.01 ± 0.24 and b∗ = 48.60 ± 0.95. Compared to the pure bixin solution prepared

in ethanol:water (20:80), with parameters L∗ = 42.10 ± 0.35, a∗ = 13.54 ± 0.98 and b∗ = 25.50 ± 2.2, the bixin nanocapsule suspension presented an increase in luminosity and yellow colour, which was coupled with a decrease in red colour. The viscosity of a suspension is important because the rheological properties affect all stages of manufacture such as mixing, pumping, filling and are valuable tools in quality control. The behaviour of the bixin nanocapsule suspension in this study is typical for a Newtonian fluid, since the increase of the shear stress was proportional to the increase of the shear rate. The optimal bixin nanocapsule formulation (16.92 ± 0.16 μg/mL) presented a viscosity of 11.4 ± 0.24 mPa.s. Immediately after being produced, the bixin nanocapsule suspension showed a mean pH of 5.89 ± 0.70. Paese et al. (2009) used the same formulation to evaluate in vitro the effectiveness of nanoencapsulated benzophenone-3 and produced nanocapsule suspensions with pH values of 6.56 ± 0.09, while Pohlmann, Weiss, Mertins, Silveira, and Guterres (2002) produced indomethacin-loaded nanocapsule selleck kinase inhibitor suspensions with pH values of 4.2 ± 0.1 in a study aiming to apply the spray-drying technique to produce dried nanocapsules

and nanospheres prepared by the technique of interfacial deposition of preformed polymer, using a similar formulation to that used in this work. One way to evaluate the chemical stability of a nanocapsule suspension is the measurement of the pH, since its decrease can be related to the degradation of the polymer or other ingredient (Kishore et al., 2011 and Mallin et al., 1996). During the first 63 days of storage, no significant change was observed in the pH values (p < 0.05); however, on the 119th day, the pH levels decreased to 4.48 ± 0.32 ( Fig. 4). One way to minimise the changes in pH is to use a buffering agent in the aqueous phase. In a previous study, indomethacin nanocapsule suspensions also showed reduced pH values during storage (3 months) that varied from 4.2 ± 0.

Moreover, there is activation of the coagulation

Moreover, there is activation of the coagulation selleckchem cascade and depressed fibrinolytic activity, which leads to the formation of septations as a result of fibrin deposition.8 A fibrino-purulent collection follows and is often associated with a paucity

of organisms – as few as 25–30% of empyemas are actually culture positive.7 The organising stage follows as fibroblasts create a solid fibrous pleural peel replacing the soft fibrin. This can prevent the re-expansion of the lung and create a persistent area of pleural thickening.9 What was our therapeutic intervention? Intrapleural fibrinolytic drugs (streptokinase 250 000 IU twice daily for 3 days) were given. In the UK up to 20% of empyema patients come to surgery due to failed catheter drainage and, overall, 20% of patients with empyema die.10 Intravenous antibiotics and chest tube drainage are the first line treatments. However, as outlined above, infected fluid can become septated and hence resist drainage. A meta-analysis from the Cochrane library11 evaluated four trials12, 13, 14 and 15 and concluded that fibrinolytics reduce hospital stay, shorten the period of fever, produce PI3K inhibitor radiological improvement, and reduce the incidence of treatment failure (defined as death). However MIST 1, a large randomised trial of intrapleural

streptokinase, failed to show any benefit in terms of mortality, rates of surgery, radiographic outcomes, or length of the hospital stay.16 However, all infected effusions were included in this study from many centres with varying experience in their management and Phospholipase D1 it is argued that streptokinase would not work in the effusions in the late organised stage with hard peels.17 The patients were much older and had many more co-morbidities than

in the previous trials. The effusions were also only treated with smaller chest tubes without image guidance. Our centre has considerable experience managing complicated parapenumonic effusions utilising image-guided drainage and intrapleural streptokinase. Streptokinase is adhesiolytic and complexes of streptokinase with human plasminogen can hydrolytically activate other unbound plasminogen to produce plasmin which breaks fibrin down. However, it is not bactericidal and does not reduce viscosity of pus which has a high DNA content from degranulated cells. It is plausible that a combination of agents that reduce pus viscosity (e.g., DNase) and those that break down loculations may be necessary to enhance pus drainage. Rahman et al.18 found that intrapleural tissue plasminogen activator and DNase therapy improved fluid drainage in patients with pleural infection and reduced the frequency of surgical referral and the duration of the hospital stay. This was a study of 201 patients with pleural infection who received double placebo, intrapleural tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and DNase, t-PA and placebo, or DNase and placebo for 3 days.

13%, 35 56%, 34 38% and 21 46%, respectively The results obtaine

13%, 35.56%, 34.38% and 21.46%, respectively. The results obtained in this study indicate that the potential of grape pomace extracts to inhibit

oxidative processes in emulsified systems should be exploited. The Bordeaux variety, with the highest anthocyanins content, also had the greatest oxidation inhibition power in this system, indicating the high capacity of these compounds to scavenge free radicals liberated during linoleic acid oxidation. The results obtained in this website this study showed significant differences among the varieties in relation to the phenolic content. The Cabernet Sauvignon and Bordeaux varieties were richest in total phenolics and total anthocyanins, respectively. Catechin was the most abundant non-anthocyanic compound identified in grape pomace. The antioxidant activity of extracts obtained

from grape pomace showed that of the varieties studied the Cabernet Sauvignon variety has the greatest potential as a source of compounds to be applied as natural antioxidants in food. Inhibition of oxidation in the β-carotene/linoleic acid system seems to be enhanced by the increase in anthocyanins content. The authors are grateful to CNPq/Capes for financial support and EPAGRI – Videira (Agricultural Research Governmental Company of Santa Catarina State) for help in obtaining samples from industrial producers. “
“Sulphur dioxide, sulphites and meta-bisulphites are commonly used as food additives because of their activity as enzyme inhibitors and antioxidants for preventing non-enzymatic browning reactions. Therefore, they play stabilizing and conditioning AZD9291 mw roles, preserving the flavour, texture and colour of a variety of foodstuffs (Walker, 1985). Due to such a large spectrum of action, those additives have been employed in wines and liquors, dried fruits and vegetables, juices, beverages, processed meats and sausages, as well as Alanine-glyoxylate transaminase in food conditioning formulations used in restaurants and supermarkets (Sapers, 1993). Nevertheless, they can produce disagreeable aroma and taste, or even hazardous effects to human health,

when used in high concentrations. Hypersensitive people may exhibit nausea and dizziness even at low concentrations, while life-threatening reactions have been reported at much higher concentrations. Accordingly, they have long been monitored in many countries on a routine basis (Leclerq et al., 2000, Taylor and Bush, 1986 and Verger et al., 1998). Sulphite species can be found free or bound in the food matrix (Barnett, 1985, Kelly et al., 2002 and Wedzicha, 1992). The reversibly bond sulphite can be released as SO32- ion, in strong alkaline conditions. The so-called free sulphite species can be found in solution as SO2, HSO3- and SO32-, and their relative concentrations depend on pH (Wedzicha, 1992).

Second, because their correlation (scores-cost) is positive, tree

Second, because their correlation (scores-cost) is positive, trees in a score-based selection have economic values higher than average, an effect of diameter being part of the score (see also Babcock et al. 1997). Although retention approaches in forestry were introduced only a few decades ago (Gustafsson et al. 2012), a large number of ecological studies have been performed in relation to this practice (Lindenmayer et al. 2012). Reviews of results have also been made, indicating overall positive effects to biodiversity (Gustafsson et al., 2010, Rosenvald

and Lõhmus, 2008 and Vanderwel et al., 2007). Still, the knowledge on links between specific tree properties and tree-associated plants see more and animals are scarce for retention trees. Our study shows that for aspen, black-colored bark and slow tree growth as well as other features related to tree form and bark texture, are important for the epiphytic lichen flora. Stem shape and bark properties have also been found to be important in other studies on lichen epiphytes in different environments, although their relative importance vary (e.g. Fritz et al., 2009 and Ranius et al., 2008). Mechanisms behind the influence of the tree properties seem related to factors

like bark chemistry and water-holding capacity (Ellis 2011). Balmford and Gaston (1999) suggest that the savings in the amount of land to protect that comes from a more efficient, complementarity-based NSC 683864 site

selection is commonly at least 5%. In our score-based selection, with representation of all species or all species of conservation concern as the conservation goal, 3.5 fewer trees (11.7% of all trees) were needed, supporting their suggestion. Making a selection of the cheapest trees, by prioritizing small diameters, led to more trees, but with lower economic value. Thus, this type of selection, which has been demonstrated also in other studies (see e.g. (Juutinen et al., 2004, Moore et al., 2004 and Perhans et al., 2008) could be an alternative strategy. But, it is opposite to current, field-based knowledge from biologists and researchers, Tyrosine-protein kinase BLK who usually view large aspen trees as having special value to epiphytic lichens (e.g. Nitare, 2000 and Gärdenfors, 2010). Importance of large-diameter trees for lichens has been found also for other tree species (e.g. Aragon et al., 2010, Johansson et al., 2007 and Thor et al., 2010). Thus, we caution against applying this strategy until more studies have been made on the link between aspen diameter and the epiphytic lichen flora. Occupancy or representation on the clearcut is a baseline starting point. However, the relationship between occupancy and long-term viability in the landscape is the ultimate response variable or target for conservation, but beyond what could be studied with this dataset.

It is therefore probable that feeding resources (maritime pine tr

It is therefore probable that feeding resources (maritime pine trees) were abundant enough with respect to the PPM population, ensuring that

female moths were able to find suitable habitats throughout the landscape, thus yielding a uniform distribution of nests across pine stands. By contrast, rates of infestation with PPM were dependent on stand characteristics. The percentage of trees attacked by PPM was higher in older stands, which had a lower tree density. For a given load of moths potentially able to attack trees, which was find more equal across stands, the probability of a tree being attacked in pure maritime stands was thus higher at lower host densities. Geri and Miller (1985) observed a similar pattern of infestation, with a larger number of infested trees in less dense pine stands. Negative correlations between tree density and percentage of tree infestation with herbivorous insects are commonly reported for other conifer defoliators, such as the pine sawflies Neodiprion autumnalis in the US ( McMillin et al., 1996), Diprion pini on Scots pine in Finland ( De Somviele et al., 2004), and Neodiprion abietis on balsam fir in Canada ( Ostaff et al., 2006). These patterns of infestation may be explained by low pest density (endemic populations), unlimited feeding resources, and non-random host colonization processes leading to the infestation

of a constant number of more suitable trees ( De Somviele et al., 2004). We observed that trees selleck located at the edge of stand were more likely to be infested than trees located in the heart of stand. Higher rates of infestation at forest edges have already been reported for the pine processionary moth in the study area (Dulaurent et al., 2012), and in mountainous areas (Geri and Miller, 1985 and Barbaro et al., Carnitine dehydrogenase 2013). Similar observations have been reported for several other forest insects (Dulaurent et al., 2012 and references therein), such as the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar in Mongolia ( Hauck et al., 2008 and Dulamsuren et al., 2010) and the bark beetle Ips typographus in Germany ( Kautz et al., 2013).

Edges with different aspects had different rates of PPM infestation. Attacks were concentrated on edges facing west and south-west, corresponding to the edges receiving the most sunlight in this area. Conversely, shadier edges (North and North-East) had the lowest rates of PPM infestation, whereas edges facing south-east and north-west had intermediate levels of infestation. This trend is consistent with previous observations in mountainous areas (Barbaro et al., 2013). Regardless of the location of trees within stand, their probability of being attacked by PPM increased with tree diameter. Given the strong correlation between tree diameter and height, this result also implies that taller trees were more likely to be attacked than shorter ones.

Similarly, orienting

clients to phone holidays and the th

Similarly, orienting

clients to phone holidays and the therapist’s personal limits around phone coaching allows therapists to be proactive rather than reactive when personal limits are breached. Orientation to phone coaching often occurs after an unsuccessful or problematic use of phone coaching. Because clients with BPD can be keenly sensitive, this can feel like a reprimand, and, as such, may deter some clients with BPD from using phone coaching click here in the future. Thus, by properly orienting clients to the contingencies present in DBT phone coaching, problematic and unskillful use of this treatment modality is diminished. “
“The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that there are more than 1.1 million individuals living with HIV/AIDS in the United States (CDC, 2012b). Furthermore, rates of new infections have remained relatively stable in recent years at a rate of approximately 50,000 new infections each year (CDC, 2012a). Given that deaths of individuals living with HIV infection have also remained stable at around 20,000 per year (CDC, 2012b), the BKM120 supplier population of individuals

living with HIV in the United States is on the rise. The HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States carries with it a heavy economic burden (Hutchinson et al., 2006), which is exacerbated by high levels of comorbidity with mental and physical health problems (Safren, Blashill, & O’Cleirigh, 2011), and treatments that aim to reduce mental HSP90 health problems and optimize health among HIV-infected individuals may help to ease this burden. Depression is one of the most frequently occurring comorbidities in HIV-infected individuals (Bing et al., 2001 and Ciesla and Roberts, 2001).

A meta-analysis estimated that 9.4% of HIV-infected adults met DSM criteria for current major depressive disorder (Ciesla & Roberts, 2001), and another large nationally representative survey estimated that 36% of HIV-infected adults met criteria for major depressive disorder in the past 12 months (Bing et al., 2001). Further, meta-analyses and systematic reviews have found that depression is not only associated with nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among HIV-infected individuals (Gonzalez, Batchelder, Psaros, & Safren, 2011), but it is also independently associated with HIV disease progression (i.e., decreases in CD4 T lymphocytes, increases in viral load; Leserman, 2008). Depressive symptoms may additionally potentiate risk of HIV transmission to HIV-uninfected individuals, as evidence suggests that moderate levels of depressive symptoms may increase engagement in sexual risk behavior (Koblin et al., 2006, O’Cleirigh et al., 2013, Parsons et al., 2003 and Stall et al., 2003). Moreover, elevated viral load resulting from depression and ART nonadherence increases infectiousness in the HIV-infected individual, thus increasing likelihood of transmission to HIV-uninfected partners (Attia et al., 2009, Cohen et al.

” (Garrett, 2007) There is a saying in Krio, the lingua franca o

” (Garrett, 2007). There is a saying in Krio, the lingua franca of Sierra Leone, “mae we hush,” which is a term of condolence. The speaker offers condolences to the listener, while at the same time consoling him or herself for a shared loss. So for Khan, Fonnie,

their fellow healthcare workers fallen in the line of duty, and all those suffering from EVD in West Africa: mae we hush. Sheik RG7420 chemical structure Humarr Khan is survived by his parents, son and daughter and 9 brothers and sisters. Mbalu Fonnie is survived by her mother, three sons and one daughter and four grandchildren. Readers who would like to make donations to a foundation established by the Khan family to help educate children orphaned by EVD may contact the corresponding author for information. The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the Navy, Department of Defense, nor the U.S. Government. Dr. Bausch is a contractor employee of the U.S. Government. This work was prepared as part of his official duties. Title 17 U.S.C. §105 provides that ‘Copyright protection under this title is not available for any work of the United States Government’. Title 17 U.S.C. §101 defines a U.S. Government work as a work prepared by a military service

member or employee of the U.S. Government as part of that person’s official duties. The authors thank Mafudia Suaray for creative inputs and Cecilia Gonzales for administrative Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor support. “
“Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a single-stranded RNA virus and represents a major causative agent of chronic liver disease. Worldwide, 170 million people have a chronic HCV infection and are at risk to develop cirrhosis, leading to clinical complications such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (Hajarizadeh et al., 2013 and Lauer and Meloxicam Walker, 2001). The

aim of chronic hepatitis C treatment is to achieve a sustained virological response (SVR), which is associated with reduced occurrence of liver failure and HCC, and with prolonged overall survival (Backus et al., 2011, Cardoso et al., 2010 and Van der Meer et al., 2012). Many highly potential direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents are being assessed in clinical trials and various combinations of DAA’s result in high SVR rates. Some DAAs target viral proteins, such as NS3/4A protease and NS5A/B replication inhibitors, whereas others target host factors that are essential for HCV replication, such as cyclophilin A or microRNA-122 (miR-122) (Flisiak et al., 2012 and Janssen et al., 2013). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (19–24 nucleotides), non-coding, RNA molecules that are involved in various cellular processes by post-transcriptional suppression of gene expression (Ambros, 2004 and Bartel, 2004). MiR-122, a highly abundant miRNA expressed in the liver (Lagos-Quintana et al.

, 1988) The main water resource concern during this period was t

, 1988). The main water resource concern during this period was treating drinking water to minimize threats to human health. In the 1920s, dysentery and typhoid impacted the communities as a result of no or low treatment of sewage and drinking water. Walleye, yellow perch and lake whitefish were commercially harvested in larger quantities compared to the other species during this time. Due to the lack of socioeconomic and ecological data during this period Lonafarnib we cannot sufficiently identify the impact of socioeconomic systems on the ecological condition of LSC (and vice versa), but the health issues arising from water consumption infers poor water quality that directly affected

human health. During the second period (1941–1970), the population continued to increase but at lower rates, urbanization was significant, and precipitation

and lake levels of LSC increased. Point sources of pollution, such as wastewater discharges from residential and industrial water use, began Lenvatinib to be regulated through the construction of wastewater treatment plants and the adoption of environmental policies, such as the USA Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1948. One of the main concerns during this period was controlling chemical pollutants using engineering solutions (Karr, 1991). By 1966, 85% of the total population was served by sewers with secondary treatment (State of Michigan, 1966); however, beach monitoring for E. coli suggested that water quality degraded over this time. Walleye was the only fish commercially harvested in large quantities during this period. The opening of the St. Lawrence Seaway in 1959 stimulated the shipping industry, which would later influence the spread of invasive species.

During the third and most recent period (1971–2010) the population and the economic importance (e.g. real median value of homes) of the watershed increased. This is likely due to the population moving from the metro-Detroit area into the suburbs in the LSC watershed. Wayne County for the first time had lower employment and population than Cytidine deaminase the surrounding counties (Macomb, St. Clair, Oakland, Sanilac, Lapeer) in the LSC watershed. After adoption of the Clean Water Act of 1972, new policies, such as the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement between USA and Canada were implemented to protect the designated uses (e.g. fishable/swimmable) of aquatic resources (Table 1). However, water quality problems associated with waterborne pathogens persisted although the risk was associated with recreational exposure rather than drinking water. Wetland area loss was greater than 70% in the 1970s compared to 1873, due to residential, commercial, industrial and recreational development (Herdendorf et al., 1986 and Jaworski and Raphael, 1976).

There are numerous models available, with more being developed ea

There are numerous models available, with more being developed each year, differing in scale of the modeled landscape and complexity of use and inputs. In relating models to observed conditions, models are calibrated, and model output is compared to field data, historical reports and expected behavior (US EPA, 2006). These comparisons allow the validity

of model output to be assessed and provide “weight-of-evidence” support for the use of the model (US EPA, 2006). A recent study compared four commonly used watershed models, including STEPL, with 30 years Onalespib molecular weight of monitoring data from a Kansas dam impoundment (Neiadhashemi et al., 2011). When comparing modeled loading with measured results, the study indicated: C646 manufacturer The models varied in their ability to replicate measured data; models best conformed to the measured pollutant loading when input data was based on observed local conditions instead of regional defaults;

STEPL performs well in estimating relative contribution from land use but less well in geographically determining major sources of sediment. STEPL is included in the US EPA website as an acceptable watershed-scale model. In Ohio, it was used in conjunction with stream monitoring data to develop the Euclid Creek TMDL watershed plan (Ohio EPA, 2005). The Middle Cuyahoga River study provides an additional example of measured data that supports the strength of the STEPL model, with comparison to a decades-long sediment record SB-3CT instead of the relatively limited time frame of stream monitoring. Where two distinctly different methodologies compare closely, as with the Middle Cuyahoga study, an understanding of the similarities and differences

in results and assumptions can assist investigators in several ways. First, the similar results help support the validity of both approaches/interpretations. Second, investigators can compare the more easily derived model results for watersheds and subwatersheds having more limited monitoring data with a degree of confidence. For example, pollutant loading model results for other subwatersheds of the Cuyahoga River can be compared with downstream monitoring data to determine the relative contribution from subwatersheds. This could allow watershed managers to target high-sediment yield subwatersheds/land uses for best management practices. Third, the sediment study points to limitations in the modeling process that watershed managers can address by varying assumptions. For instance, the sediment record demonstrates a potential increase in high-flow events, which may increase stream erosion. Watershed managers can easily model several scenarios of pollutant loading with different average precipitation amounts and even an increased amount of gully formation.

Antibodies against cytochrome c, poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribo

Antibodies against cytochrome c, poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP), Bak, Bax, α-tubulin were purchased from Santa Cruz Biotechnology (Santa Cruz, CA, USA). Antibodies against caspase-8, -9, and cytochrome c oxidase II (Cox II) were purchased from Cell Signaling Technology (Beverly, MA, USA). Clarity Western ECL Substrate Kit was purchased from Bio-Rad (Hercules, CA, USA). HeLa, SW111C, and this website SW480 cells were grown in DMEM supplemented with 10% (by volume) heat-inactivated newborn calf serum, 100 μg/mL of streptomycin 100 U/mL of penicillin, at 37°C in a humidified atmosphere with 5% CO2. The SG methanol extract was analyzed as a previous

report described [38]. Briefly, SG was dissolved in MeOH (3 mg/mL), and filtered with 0.45μm Millipore filter, and the solution was analyzed with a Waters 2695 liquid chromatograph (Waters Corporation, Milford, MA, USA) fitted with Knauer C-18, reverse-phase

column (Knauer, Berlin, Germany; 5μm,φ250 mm × 3 mm) utilizing the solvent gradient system. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile water (Solvent A) and water (Solvent B) and the flow rate was 0.6 mL/min. The detector was a Waters 2996 PDA Detector (Waters Corporation). The gradient elution was used as follows: 0–20 min, 20% A; 20–31 min, linear gradient from 20–32% A; 31–40 min, linear gradient from 32–43% A; 40–70 min, linear gradient from 43–100% A; and 70 min, 100% A. Exponentially growing cells were seeded into a 96-well plate at 0.8 × 104 cells/well in triplicate. GPCR Compound Library most After incubation for 20 h, cells were treated with increasing concentrations of SG, epirubicin, or paclitaxel for 48 h. At 44 h posttreatment, 20 μL of MTT (5 mg/mL) was added to each well and incubated for 4 h. Then 150 μL of DMSO was added to every well to solubilize the formazan crystals formed by viable cells, and the color intensity was measured at 550 nm with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay plate reader (TECAN, Männedorf, Switzerland). HeLa cells were cultured for 20 h and then treated with 80 μg/mL SG with 0.5 μg/mL epirubicin or 10nM paclitaxel alone or combined for 24 h. HeLa cells were harvested, washed with ice-cold phosphate buffered saline (PBS),

and stained with annexin V/PI reagent as described previously [3]. The percentage of annexin V (+) cells was determined by flow cytometry (Becton Dickinson FACS Calibur Cytometer, San Jose, CA, USA). The percentage of annexin V (+) cells indicates the frequency of total apoptotic cells. As described [39], HeLa were treated and harvested. 50 μg whole-cell lysates were incubated with 200nM Ac-LEHD-AFC (for caspase-9), Ac-IETD-AFC (for caspase-8), and Ac-DEVD-AFC (for caspase-3) in a reaction buffer containing 20mM 4-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) pH 7.4,10mM dithiothreitol (DTT), 10% sucrose, 100mM NaCl, and 0.1% 3-((3-Cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonium)-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS) at 37°C for 1 h. The reaction was monitored by fluorescence excitation at 405 nm and emission at 505 nm.