Remarkably, this transfer resulted in masculinization of the micr

Remarkably, this transfer resulted in masculinization of the microbial composition, increased testosterone levels, and metabolite profile of glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids in female recipients, demonstrating, amazingly, that male microbiota provides sex-specific protective effects against T1D pathogenesis (Markle et al., 2013). Notably, commensal bacteria may be directly

responsible for testosterone production and its effects on metabolism, as both male and female NOD mice exhibited altered testosterone profiles and T1D-like pathology when reared under germ-free conditions. These studies are among the first to demonstrate the ability of microbial transfer to impact disease risk and resilience. Behavioral phenotypes also appear to be transmissible via the microbiota, as germ-free NIH Swiss mice inoculated with

cecal contents from BALB/c mice, an innately anxious strain of mice, displays a behavioral phenotype similar to the donor species (Bercik et al., 2011). These combined results have important implications for the etiology and potential treatment of functional gastrointestinal intestinal disorders, which are female biased in presentation and comorbid with psychiatric disorders, including anxiety and depression (Chang et al., 2006, Mikocka-Walus et al., 2008 and O’Mahony et al., 2014b). Thus, microbiota transfer studies across a variety of experimental conditions will undoubtedly expand our understanding of the role of the microbiota in biological click here processes, including brain development, immunity, and metabolic function. Calpain The quality of the early postnatal environment influences

the course of development, which in turn determines the health of the individual across the life span. Transmission of individual differences in behavioral and physiological responses to environmental stimuli is a key factor in predicting stress-related disorders. To date, alterations in maternal care, diet, and stress are known influences on sex-specific outcomes related to offspring disease vulnerability (Bale et al., 2010). Vertical transmission of maternal microbes to offspring is emerging as a factor in transgenerational disease risk and resilience. The vaginal microbiome influences early-host microbe interactions in the neonate, and therefore affects long-term programming of microbial colonization patterns, immune function, metabolic status, neurodevelopment, and disease risk into adulthood. From a clinical perspective, screening of the vaginal flora during late pregnancy may also provide critical insight into the early colonization patterns of the newborn gastrointestinal tract and associated disease risk.

The D index represents an estimate of

The D index represents an estimate of Sirtuin inhibitor the log hazard ratio comparing two equal-sized groups overcoming the generality issues associated

with comparing hazard ratios across different study samples (Royston and Sauerbrei 2004). The proportion of variation explained (R2) provides a measure of the fit of the classification system to the observed data (Royston and Sauerbrei 2004). The larger is the separation (D), the greater is the discrimination between levels of falls risk between item and total score categories (Royston et al 2004). Robust estimates of the standard errors were used to incorporate the correlation of observations within individuals (Twisk et al 2005). The proportional hazards assumption of each survival model was tested with the scaled Schoenfield residuals tests (Machin et al 2006). Methods for calculating sample size and power

estimates for epidemiological modeling studies that use recurrent events survival models to investigate associations between predictors and INCB024360 molecular weight outcome events are not readily available. As such, a pragmatic sample size was selected that was considered appropriate to determine meaningful associations and that would provide a representative sample of people living in residential aged care. Of the 298 residents living in the six facilities, 100 were excluded from the study because they had been living at the facility for less than 12 months. Of the 198 residents who were eligible to participate in the study, 87 agreed to participate, as presented in Figure 1. The demographic and health characteristics of the residents who participated in the study are presented in Table 1. No participants withdrew from the study and no adverse events attributable to the study assessments were reported. Table 1 also presents the percentage of residents in each Physical Mobility Scale category at the baseline assessment. The category below with the greatest number of participants

(37%) was the ‘highest independence’ mobility category (Physical Mobility Scale total score 37–45). Mobility impairment as measured by the Physical Mobility Scale total score had a non-linear association with risk of falling (Figure 2). Residents with mild impairment (Physical Mobility Scale total score 28–36) had the highest risk for falling, which was statistically significant when compared to residents in all other score categories (hazard ratio = 1.98, 95% CI 1.30 to 3.03). Residents in the fully dependent mobility category (Physical Mobility Scale total score 0 to 9) had the lowest risk category for falls, which was also statistically significant when compared to residents in all other score categories (hazard ratio = 0.05, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.32). Associations between individual item scores on the Physical Mobility Scale and falls risk are presented in detail in Figure 3.

As neoplastic progression leading to the development of the tumor

As neoplastic progression leading to the development of the tumorigenic phenotype is driven by molecular alterations, the analysis of these molecular features could contribute to the prediction of the

tumorigenic potential of cell substrates that evolve by Doxorubicin chemical structure spontaneous neoplastic development during cell culture. MicroRNAs are short RNA molecules that have been shown to be important regulators of biological functions [38]. Aberrations in miRNA expression can affect important cellular processes like the cell cycle, cell proliferation, or cell death by apoptosis [39]. These processes are known to be involved in neoplastic development and hence provide a direct link to tumor initiation and progression. The use of tissue miRNA expression profiles as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers in cancer has been demonstrated by several studies [24] and [40]. We have shown that specific miRNA signatures were identified that correlated with the transition of VERO cells from a non-tumorigenic phenotype (low-passage cells, p148) to a tumorigenic phenotype (high-passage cells, p256) during serial tissue-culture passage [28]. We also demonstrated that the signature miRNAs identified see more in VERO cells grown

in FBS were the same as in the VERO cells adapted to grow in serum-free ALOX15 medium (SF-VERO). In the present study, we used quantitative RT-PCR to evaluate our initial observation that miRNA expression changes with the progress of neoplastic development of VERO cells during intervening passages. Compared with pAGMK cells, the expression levels of these signature miRNAs progressively increased in cells from LD 10–87 VERO cell banks established at every 10 passages from p151 to p256. Notably, the expression of these miRNAs peaked at p194 in LD 10–87 VERO cells. The correlation of the six selected miRNAs for the

tumorigenic phenotype of VERO cells was verified by assessing another independently-derived 10–87 VERO cell line that was developed by HD passaging. The trend in the expression of signature miRNAs was generally similar between the LD 10–87 VERO cell set and the HD 10–87 VERO cell set. Moreover, the over-expression of these miRNAs was also evident in another VERO cell line, A4497 VERO cells, that was also derived independently and has been shown to be tumorigenic in newborn and adult nude mice [10]. Similar to our previous report [28], the increased rate of migration of HD 10–87 VERO cells correlated with their capacity to form tumors in nude mice. The transition of non-tumorigenic phenotype to tumorigenic phenotype appeared to occur around p185 in 10–87 HD VERO cells and around p194 in LD 10–87 VERO cells.

Characteristic sulfur granules on histopathology make the

Characteristic sulfur granules on histopathology make the

diagnosis of actinomycosis [5] and [6]. High suspicion is the main point for making a diagnosis, as radiological imaging is not diagnostic, as seen in this case. Management of the disease with medical drugs should be tried first. Rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol are the basis of breast tuberculosis treatment [2], [3] and [4]. Surgery should be reserved for medical treatment-resistant cases. In endemic areas, tuberculosis should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of an inflammatory breast mass. “
“Conjoined twinning CHIR-99021 supplier is a rare occurrence with an incidence of about 1 in 50,000 pregnancies, 60% of which result in stillbirth [1]. There is an approximate BEZ235 concentration 2–3:1 female to male predominance [1]. The classification of conjoined twins is complex, but is usually based on degree and anatomic location of the fusion [2]. Parapagus twins always share a conjoined pelvis with one or two sacrums and a single symphysis [2]. Dicephalic parapagus

twins share a common thorax and account for approximately 3.7% of all conjoined twins [1]. A 37-year-old Caucasian female, para 1–0–2–1 was referred to our department at 27 weeks gestation for evaluation of conjoined twins. The patient was a late registrant for care at 22 weeks gestation and her initial ultrasound was performed at 26 weeks gestation showing polyhydraminos and a dicephalic fetus. The patient denied any pertinent past medical or surgical history and any history of drug or toxin exposure. Both 2D and 3D ultrasound were performed on a Voluson 730 scanner

(General Electric Health Care, Milwaukee, Unoprostone WI) with a 4–7-MHz transducer at our institution with findings consistent with dicephalic conjoined twins with acrania (Fig. 1 and Fig. 2). Two spines were identified and appeared parallel (Fig. 3) with fusion in the thoraco-lumbar region with associated rachischisis. Cardiac imaging was difficult secondary to fetal positioning and was incomplete. There was no apparent duplication of the abdominal organs and a single 2 vessel umbilical cord was present. The largest diameter of the dicephalic presenting part was 8.8 cm, equivalent to a 35 week singleton biparietal diameter (Fig. 4). Given the findings of an assured non-viable fetal condition, the option of pregnancy termination was offered. The patient was admitted later that day and underwent an induction of labor after cardioplegia with laminaria and pitocin augmentation. She had a spontaneous vaginal delivery of a stillborn, dicephalic female fetus in cephalic presentation. The family declined chromosomal analysis, but desired a limited autopsy. Her postpartum course was uncomplicated. Permission for autopsy, excluding head, was obtained from the parents on the day of delivery. External examination was notable for a dicephalus dipus dibrachius female fetus (Fig. 5). Both fetal heads demonstrated acrania.

13 This has helped to define better the functions of these crysta

13 This has helped to define better the functions of these crystal protein helices in membrane binding, membrane insertion and toxicity. Various mutations in domain I, II and III of the crystal toxins and their effect on the toxicities toward the target insects and trypsin stabilities have been presented in Table 2. A wild-type cry gene has a low G + C content, many potential polyadenylation sites

(18), and numerous ATTTA sequences. It is expressed poorly in plants as a full length or as a truncated gene. A synthetic type cry gene was designed by mutagenesis with plant preferred codons, low A + T percentage and increased G + C concentration. This synthetic gene got expressed 500 times more than wild type in Transgenic tobacco and showed complete protection toward beet armyworm insects compared to minimal protection shown by its wild-type gene. 18 Numerous synthetic cry1 genes FG-4592 mw have been reported. 19, 20 and 21 Recently a method was developed for designing synthetic nucleotide sequences encoding polypeptides Doxorubicin manufacturer of interest for expression in a heterologous organism, such as a plant.22 Patent data related to Cry1 toxins can be searched, collected and analyzed from various resources viz., freely available databases of international/national patent office’s (IPO, USPTO, EPO and WIPO); non-charge providers (Google patents, FreePatentsOnline)

and charge providers (Delphion, Derwent). Patent number, Adenosine author/s, date of publication or priority, assignees, country and set of subject specific keywords can be used for patent search. 23 Patents related to B. thuringiensis insecticidal crystal proteins had been categorized

into groups according to the type of toxins appearing in the claims. 24 Many patents related to Cry1 toxins have been filed and published. Examples are as below. Cry1A: US6833449, US6855873, US2006021095, US2006174372; Cry1B: WO2004020636, US2007061919, WO2007107302, WO2010/120452; Cry1C: US5861543, US5942664, US6043415, US2006174372, WO2007107302, US2008020968; Cry1E: US5521286, MX9606262; Cry1F: US6737273, WO2005/103266, US2006174372; Cry1Fa1: 242768; Cry1I: US6063605, US2007061919; Cry1J: US5322687, US5356623, US5616319, US5679343, US2007061919; Cry1A/Cry1C: US5932209; Cry1C/Cry1A/Cry1F: US6156573, WO0114562, WO0214517, US6962705, US7250501. The mechanism of action of the B. thuringiensis Cry proteins involves multiple steps. These include (i) solubilization of the crystals to release the Cry proteins in their protoxin forms, (ii) activation of the protoxins by midgut proteases to their active forms, (iii) binding of the toxins to a midgut receptors and (iv) pore formations 25 The major proteases of the lepidopteran insect’s midgut are trypsin-like 26 or chymotrypsin-like.

N Engl J Med 368: 1675–1684 [Prepared by Kåre B Hagen and Margre

N Engl J Med 368: 1675–1684. [Prepared by Kåre B Hagen and Margreth Grotle, CAP Editors.] Question: Does arthroscopic partial meniscectomy and postoperative physiotherapy result in better functional outcomes than standardised physiotherapy (PT) alone for

symptomatic patients with a meniscal tear and knee osteoarthritis buy Gefitinib (OA)? Design: A randomised, controlled trial in a 1:1 ratio with concealed allocation. Setting: Seven US tertiary referral centres. Participants: Men and women, aged 45+ years with a meniscal tear, mild to moderate OA, symptoms for at least four weeks, managed with medications, activity limitations, or PT. Exclusion criteria comprised having a chronically locked knee, severe OA (Kellgren-Lawrence Grade 4), inflammatory arthritis, or prior surgery to the affected knee. Randomisation of 351 participants allocated 171 to arthroscopic Selleckchem Neratinib partial menisectomy followed by PT and 177 to PT alone. Interventions: Both groups received a similar PT program. The PT program was based on land-based, individualised physiotherapy with progressive home exercises. A phased structured

program was designed to decrease inflammation, restore active joint range and neuromuscular re-education of quadriceps (Phase 1), restore muscle strength and endurance, re-establish full and pain-free active joint range, gradual return to functional activities, and minimise gait deviations (Phase 2), and enhance muscle strength and endurance, and return to sports/functional activities (Phase 3). It was recommended that the patient attend PT sessions once or twice weekly for six weeks and perform exercises at home. In addition, the surgery group had arthroscopic partial meniscectomy performed by trimming the damaged meniscus back to a stable rim followed by postoperative PT. Outcome measures: The primary outcome was change in the physicalfunction scale of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC)

questionnaire from baseline to six months follow up. Secondary outcomes included the pain score on the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Scale (KOOS) and the physical-functioning out scale of the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Results: In total, 330 patients completed the six month follow-up. There was no difference between the groups in change in the WOMAC physical-function score (mean difference 2.4 points, 95% CI −1.8 to 6.5). There were also no significant differences between the groups in the KOOS pain score, SF-36 physical functioning, or frequencies of adverse events. At six months, 51 (30%) active participants in the study who were assigned to PT alone had undergone surgery, and 9 patients assigned to surgery (6%) had not undergone surgery.

Initial therapy consisted of oral hygiene instructions,

Initial therapy consisted of oral hygiene instructions, TSA HDAC which were repeated until the patient achieved an O’leary plaque score of 20% or below.10 Scaling and root planing of the teeth were performed. Patient was referred to department of conservative dentistry and endodontics for root canal therapy in relation to #35 and #36 teeth (which were symptomatic to the heat test). Four weeks following phase 1 therapy, a periodontal re-evaluation was performed

to confirm the suitability of #36 tooth for this periodontal surgical procedure. Clinical measurements were made using william’s periodontal probe with graduation to a precision of 1 mm. Blood sample was taken on the day of the surgery according to the PRF protocol with a REMI 3000 centrifuge and collection kits. Briefly, 6 ml blood sample was taken from the patient without an anti-coagulant in 10 ml glass test tubes and immediately

centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 12 min. A fibrin clot was formed in the middle of the tube, whereas the upper JAK inhibitor part contained acellular plasma, and the bottom part contained red corpuscles. The fibrin clot was easily separated from the lower part of the centrifuged blood. The PRF clot was gently pressed between two sterile dry gauges to obtain a membrane which was later minced and added to the graft material (OSSIFI™) (Fig. 4). An intrasulcular incision was made on buccal and lingual aspect of the tooth of left mandibular teeth (# 35, 36, 37) along with a vertical incision, extending to the muco gingival junction in relation to distal aspect of #35. A full thickness triangular flap was raised and inner surface of the flap was curetted to remove the granulation tissue. Root surfaces were thoroughly planed using hand instruments and ultra sonic scalers. The left mandibular first molar demonstrated mesial intrabony defect after removing granulation tissue

thoroughly, mesial intrabony defect was found to extend in buccal and apical aspect (Fig. 3). Briefly, minced PRF was mixed with alloplast (OSSIFI™) and was applied to the defect walls and root surfaces (Fig. 5 and Fig. 6). The alloplast with PRF was then condensed using amalgam condensers. The flap were through repositioned to their pre surgical levels and sutured with silk utilizing an interrupted technique (Fig. 7). After the operation, the patient was prescribed systemic antibiotics (Amoxicyllin 500 mg tid, 3 days), Non-steroidal anti inflammatory drug (combiflam tid, 3 days) and 0.12% chlorhexidine rinse (twice a day for four weeks). Sutures were removed after 7 days. Clinical healing was normal with neither infectious episodes nor untoward clinical symptoms. The patient was seen at 1st week, 2nd week, 1st month, 3rd and 6th month (Fig. 8). Periapical intraoral radiographs were obtained from the periodontal defect site at baseline, 3 months and 6 months after surgery (Fig. 9).

PCV-7 has been shown in many studies to be highly immunogenic and

PCV-7 has been shown in many studies to be highly immunogenic and effective against IPD [5], [15], [16] and [17], with the vaccine efficacy of 97.4% against vaccine serotypes in the US [5]. In the large trial in South Africa and Gambia, the efficacy of PCV-9 was 83% and 77% against IPD caused by vaccine serotypes [18] and [19]. Twice as many IPD cases were indirectly prevented due to herd immunity after the PCV-7 implementation in the US [8]. Due to serotype specific efficacy of the vaccine, serotype coverage of IPD implies and predicts the efficacy of the vaccine. In this region, the serotype coverage of 70.3% by PCV-7 in IPD in children under five years of age in our study was less than the 78% coverage found in Singapore

[15], but higher than in a study in China in 2008 which found 63.6%, 64.8% and 79.6% coverage by PCV-7, PCV-10 and PCV-13, respectively [20].

The serotype coverage of IPD isolates by PCV-7 in children ≤14 years selleck compound old in Taiwan was 85%, somewhat higher than in our study [21]. WHO reported the overall serotype coverage of PCV-7 ranged from 60 to 85% worldwide [22]. There has been a concern about the increased proportion of nonvaccine serotypes reported in the US and Spain after introduction of PCV-7 vaccination program [8], [23] and [24]. The widely use of PCV-7 may contributed to the emergence of nonvaccine serotypes, especially serotype 19A [8], [23] and [24]. However, a study in Korea reported an increase in serotype 19A even before the introduction either of DAPT concentration PCV-7 [25]. It is probable that both selective vaccine pressure and clonal spread were contributing factors to the circulating serotypes in the community. In Thailand, we reported the serotype coverage of PCV-7, PCV-9, PCV-11, and PCV-13 of 73.9%, 77.4%, 77.4%, and 87.8%, respectively, in children younger than 5 years of age during 2001–2005 [11]. The serotype coverage found in this study was somewhat lower than that report, but was still within the 95% confidential interval. Although PCV-7 has been available in Thailand since June 2006, the vaccine has been

used mainly in private settings with an estimated 55,000 doses sold each year, representing less than 5% of children <5 years of age. This low vaccine uptake did not seem to affect the serotype distribution in this relatively small study. The top seven serotypes of invasive isolates found in our study were different in rank of order and frequency (%) in each age groups, as well as whether the sites were sterile or non-sterile. Although the top seven serotypes of isolates from sterile sites in children younger than 5 years of age were not completely match with other studies reported earlier in Thailand [11], [26], [27] and [28], they were quite consistent. The common serotypes found in those and our studies were 6B, 14, 19A, 19F, 23F. The PCV that included all these serotypes, i.e. PCV-13, would be the most appropriate for large scale use in Thailand.

aeruginosa at 80 μl of AgNPs Next was K pneumoniae 15 mm at 80 

aeruginosa at 80 μl of AgNPs. Next was K. pneumoniae 15 mm at 80 μl of AgNPs concentration. S. typhimurium and E. aerogenes showed maximum zone of inhibition of 14 mm each at again 80 μl concentration. E. coli showed the least zone of inhibition of 13 mm at the above said concentration of AgNPs. At minimum concentration of 20 μl amongst pathogenic bacteria, Ps. aeruginosa showed maximum inhibition zone of 17 mm. Verma et al 12 reported the antibacterial properties of silver nanoparticles produced by endophytic fungi,

Aspergillus clavatus which revealed the zone of inhibition of 14 mm in case of Pseudomonas sp and 10 mm in case of E. coli. Similarly, reports of Swetha Sunkar and Valli Nachiyar 20 regarding antibacterial activity of AgNPs, produced by endophytic bacterium, Bacillus cereus isolated from Garcinia xanthochymus showed zone of inhibition of 18 mm with E. coli,

15 mm with Ps. aeruginosa, Crizotinib 14 mm with S. typhi, 15 mm with K. pneumoniae. Our results of nanoparticle production from endophytic fungi, Pencillium sp. tested against pathogenic bacteria, E. coli, Ps. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae, S. typhimurium, and E. aerogenes showed maximum zone of inhibition with minimum concentration of silver nanoparticles. All authors have none to declare. “
“Industrialization is the big source of pollution. Some of the industries are highly water consuming and after using the water they expel it as a hazardous waste. Such Romidepsin nmr wastes are lethal, non-degradable or may be biologically magnified, capable of promoting detrimental cumulative effects as well as short-term hazards. The main objective of present study was to investigate the effect

of industrial effect on the leaf morphology, anatomy and cytology of Ricinus communis Linn. Effects of pollutants on plants have been recognized for a long time by Ahmad et al, 1988 1 and Threshow, 1984. 2Ghaziabad is situated at nearby national capital of India known as large industrial area. In the vicinity of these industries, many medicinal plants second are growing with the changes in their morphological & anatomical characters as well as phyto-chemical constituents and cytological disturbance. The samples of R. communis Linn. were collected from the area of Cycle Industry, Ghaziabad, UP, India to investigate the effect of industrial pollution. The effluent of Industry was analyzed by APHA, 1981. 3 Twig samples of 3rd internode were used and Metacalf (1980) were consulted for anatomical studies. For anatomical studies twig samples of 3rd internode were used and Metacalf, 1980 4 were consulted. For cytological studies, seeds were treated with three concentrations of effluent i.e. 25%, 50% and 100%. The root tips were washed thoroughly with distilled water and kept in freshly prepared Carnoy’s fluid for 48 h and transferred into 70% alcohol and stored in refrigerator. For the cytological studies, the root tips were hydrolysed in 2% acetocarmine solution and retained in same solution for some time.

Purified PCR products were sequenced and sequence search similari

Purified PCR products were sequenced and sequence search similarities were conducted using BLAST.4 and 15 Phylogenetic analysis of sequence data of bacteria under study was aligned with reference sequence homology from the NCBI database using the multiple sequence alignment of MEGA 5.0 Program.16 Scale up studies were carried out in a 5 L glass fermentor (Model: Bio Spin-05A, Bio-Age) with a working volume of 3.5 L containing [Sago starch – 10 g, Yeast Extract – 20 g, KH2PO4 – 0.05 g, MnCl2·4H2O – 0.015 g, MgSO4·7H2O – 0.25 g, CaCl2·2H2O CHIR99021 – 0.05 g, FeSO4·7H2O – 0.01 g, Cysteine 1 g (g/L)] at pH – 7.0. Fermentor

glass vessel containing 3.5 L of fermentation medium was sterilized in an autoclave for 20 min at 15 lbs pressure (at 121 °C) and cooled to room temperature. 350 ml of 10% inoculum was transferred to the fermentor vessel through a port at the top plate under aseptic conditions. The incubation temperature was click here 32 °C, while the aeration and agitation rates were maintained at 0.8 L/L/min (DO) and 95 rpm respectively throughout the fermentation period. The air to be supplied was sterilized by passing through Millipore membrane filters (0.2 μm pore size). Sterilized

solution of 1 N HCl/NaOH was used for pH adjustment. Sterilized polypropylene glycol (0.01% (v/v) of 50%) was used to control foam, formed during the heptaminol fermentation process. After incubation, the fermented broth was filtered. The filtrate was used for the estimation of alpha amylase.17 Sago industrial waste soil samples were used for isolation

of amylase producing bacteria on SAM. Totally 30 different soil samples were collected from sago starch industry waste sites. Among that 22 isolates showed amylase activity upon primary screening using SAM supplemented with cassava starch as a carbon source. Only two out of 22 isolates showed high amylase activity. One potential isolate (SSII2) was identified by standard morphological and biochemical characterization and it was confirmed to be Bacillus sp. The maximum amount of amylase production was observed with 42 h incubation. The high protein content of 2.99 U/mg and the maximum enzyme activity of 456 U/ml was observed at 24 h (Fig. 1a). The main advantage of enzyme production by Bacillus sp. is a shorter incubation period which will reduce cost as well as autolysis of the enzyme created by protease itself during the fermentation process. 18 Previously amylase activity had been reported in B. subtilis (22.92 U/ml) after 72 h and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens after 72 h. 6 Maximum yield of 550 U/ml of enzyme and protein content 3.43 U/mg was observed at 32 °C ( Fig. 1b). A decrease in enzyme yield was observed with further increases in temperature.