This means optimizing cultivation inputs so that high yields are

This means optimizing cultivation inputs so that high yields are obtained and environmental effects are minimized. Several multinational and national initiatives aiming to improve quality of sea, lake and river water need more accurate information on effective means to decrease contaminants and nutrient discharges to waters and lower their effects, such as cyanobacteria blooms [9�C11].In order to function properly, sensor networks for water monitoring and agriculture normally require a relatively dense deployment of sensors. This leads to applications that monitor mostly local weather and soil characteristics [4]. Agricultural sensor networks have been developed for frost [3] or crop pest warning [12]. They are also an essential component in more advanced decision support systems (DSS) for crop protection [13,14].

In precision agriculture the studies have been concentrated on spatial data collection through mobile, vehicle embedded sensors or in-situ sensors deployed in the field [1]. Precision irrigation and fertilization and husbandry monitoring systems based on sensor networks have also been developed [1,15]. In water monitoring sensor networks are used for monitoring water quality and hydrology of rivers, lakes and reservoirs and for flood warning [4,5,16�C19].Although sensor networks still struggle with technical problems, such as energy-consumption, unreliability of network access and standard or software mismatches [20�C22], they have already been used for long-term monitoring under harsh outdoor conditions.

They allow monitoring remote, hazardous, dangerous or unwired areas, for instance in the monitoring and warning systems for tsunamis, volcanoes, or seismologic phenomena. The sensor webs, in turn, are an emerging technology, that is not yet in operational use outside the test beds [6].The sensor networks and sensor Cilengitide webs have a profound effect on the collection and analysis of environmental data. The data is very heterogeneous and may come from different in-situ, mobile or satellite sensors that have different temporal and spatial resolutions that may vary in accuracy and content [8]. Furthermore, the user has less control over data quality, and information needs to be extracted from a large amount of heterogeneous data. This highlights the importance of comprehensive metadata describing the sensors, data, and data quality, as well as the need for effective tools for data mining or other data gathering [4].

We present here a wireless sensor network (WSN), called SoilWeather, which aims to provide temporally and spatially accurate information, data services and (real-time) applications for water monitoring and agriculture on river basin and farm scales. We evaluate the performance of the network from the data user and network maintainer perspectives, and thus, focus on maintenance and data quality issues as well as applications.

escribed MFG EGFP IRES puro and the retroviral vector MFG I�

escribed. MFG. EGFP. IRES. puro and the retroviral vector MFG. I��B. IRES. puro, which encodes a supersuppressive mutant form of I��BM, were generated and infected into gastric cancer cells, as described previ ously. Pooled puromycin resistant cells were used for further analysis. STAT3 siRNA transfection STAT3 siRNA and scrambled siRNA were pur chased from Santa Cruz Biotechnology. STAT3 siRNA or control siRNA was then transfected into gastric cancer cells using LipofectAMINE Plus according to the manufacturers instructions. Preparation of nuclear and cytoplasmic extracts Cells were scraped and lysed in cold lysis buffer A, incubated on ice for 10 min, centrifuged, and the cytoplasmic extracts obtained were transferred to fresh tubes.

For nuclear extracts, the pelleted nuclei were washed in 1 mL buffer A without NP 40 and resuspended in 50 uL cold lysis buffer B. They were then extracted on ice for 10 min with occasional vortexing. The lysate was centrifuged at 170 g at 48 C for 2 min, and the supernatant was collected as nuclear extracts. Immunoblotting Cell lysates were prepared in 100 200 uL of 1x sodium dodecyl sulfate lysis buffer. Protein contents were measured using BCA Protein Assay Reagent. Entinostat Equal amounts of proteins were loaded onto a 10% discon tinuous SDS polyacrylamide gel and electrophoretically transferred to PVDF membranes blocked with 5% non fat dry milk in phosphate buffered saline Tween 20 for 1 h. The membranes were then incubated at 4 C overnight with or without 2 h incubation at room temperature with one of the following primary antibodies, anti RelA, anti phospho Ser536 RelA, anti STAT3, anti phospho Tyr705 STAT3, anti E cadherin, anti Snail, anti MMP9, anti B actin and anti TFIIB.

Horserad ish peroxidase conjugated anti rabbit IgG or anti mouse IgG was used as a secondary anti body. Enhanced chemiluminescence was used to detect the immunoreactive proteins. Equal protein loading was confirmed by B actin or TFIIB. Transient transfection and luciferase reporter assay The NF ��B luciferase reporter plasmid contains a 5x NF ��B response element fused to luciferase. The STAT luciferase reporter plasmid contains four copies of the sequence GGTTCCCGT AAATGCATCA fused to luciferase. SNU 638 cells were transiently co transfected with 0. 4 ug of luciferase reporter plasmid and 0. 4 ug of B galactosidase vector, an internal control, using LipofectAMINE Plus.

Twenty four hours after transfection, assays for luciferase and B galactosidase were carried out using a Dual Luciferase Reporter Assay System. Luciferase activity was measured on an AutoLumat LB 9505c luminometer and was normalized by B galactosidase activity. Luciferase ac tivity in control cells was arbitrarily set to 1. Immunofluorescence staining Cells were cultured on chamber slides. After 24 h, cells were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde, permeabilized with 0. 5% Triton X 100 for 5 min, and blocked with 5% normal donkey serum. After blocking, cells were incubated over night at 4

ability to explain the relevant clinical and histo pathological i

ability to explain the relevant clinical and histo pathological information. Next, we characterized the fac tors based on 3 properties, 1 their ability to discriminate among tumor types this was done using Linear Discri minant Analysis, a supervised classifier able to find the linear combination of factors which best sepa rates two pre defined classes, 2 their functional biologi cal characterization with the help of literature and databases, 3 their complex biological characterization, by searching novel properties emerging from the joint analysis of miRNA and mRNAs. The procedure is sum marized in Figure 2. Data Preprocessing Data from were transformed by computing log2 of the intensity value of mRNA expression. Quality selec tion filtering was performed removing every row with maximum fold change below 2.

Cilengitide 5, this reduced the dataset from 7182 IDs to 4966 IDs. The filtering was decided to select genetic elements with strong signal of variation. This criterion was selected as natural conse quence of the filtering performed by the authors of the dataset that used the same conditions to reduce the number of the IDs. Data were also normalized in differ ent ways according to, The two methods map the expression level in an interval comprised between 0 and 1 the first and ui and ui 1 the second. The two normalizations give identical results in the Factor Analysis step as expected. In fact, expression signals obtained from qPCR are different from signals obtained from microarrays due to the extended dynamic range of the former.

It is common, in order to validate a set of coding genes obtained by microarray, to express the mRNA level in each sample as a fraction of the expression level in the sample in which that mRNA is most abundant. So, from this point on, miRNA and mRNA expression data were analyzed together, as a sin gle expression table with normalization x1. Factor Analysis The Factor Analysis model can be defined in matrix notation as, D LF ��, where D represents the data matrix, L is the factors loadings matrix, F is the factors scores matrix and �� is the unique factors matrix. Furthermore, m are the number of samples, n the number of genetic elements and l the number of factors. Our model assumes that F and �� are indipendent, E 0, and Cov I. Under these con ditions Cov LLT Cov, for the sake of clarity LLT is named communality and Cov uniqueness.

Variability in a human tumor expression dataset arises from several sources besides tumor type, including human variability and experimental variability. Available information is about tumor types, therefore, our model explicitly involves tumor types variability, and groups other causes within the �� term, showing the power of the FA method. In our work, we were interested in dis covering the hidden or latent structure within tumor types, therefore FA is applied using the model D XT. The R package HDMD developed by Lisa McFerrin at North Carolina State University was used to take advan tage of the princip

including IL 1B, and it is es sential for MAPK and NF ��B activat

including IL 1B, and it is es sential for MAPK and NF ��B activation. Frob se et al. reported that SOCS 3 inhibited the IL 1B induced activity of TAK 1 in INS 1 cells, a rat pancreatic B cell line. Furthermore, SOCS1 was able to inhibit both MAPK and NF ��B signaling pathways in our models. Thus, we e amined the effects of SOCS1 on TAK1 activ ity. Stable SOCS1 overe pression did not alter TAK1 phosphorylation levels after IL 1B treatment. Une pectedly, however, the levels of total TAK1 de creased in the SOCS1 overe pressing cells in a gene dose dependent manner. Because SOCS1 degrades intracellular proteins via ubiquitination, the ubiquitination level of TAK1 was investigated. Lysates of the SOCS1 overe pressing cells were immunoprecipitated by using anti TAK1 antibodies.

The SOCS1 overe pression led to a higher level of TAK1 ubiquitination after IL 1B stimulation, suggesting TAK1 ubiquitination as a mechanism by which SOCS1 decreases the TAK1 levels. Additionally, when the SOCS1 overe pressing SW1353 cells were e posed to MG132, a proteasome inhibitor, TAK1 levels were increased in a time and concentration dependent manner. Discussion Cartilage damage in OA has been considered a result of an imbalance between catabolic and anabolic processes. A large body of the evidence reveals that proinflammatory cytokines are present in the synovial membrane and cartil age, even in the early stage of OA, and they function as major mediators of cartilage destruction. IL 1B is be lieved to play a vital role as a major catabolic factor in OA cartilage.

However, anti IL 1B therapy, such as anakinra, did not provide any significant Drug_discovery clinical benefit in OA patients. Furthermore, parado ically, the IL 1B deficient mice accelerated a posttraumatic or spontaneous OA, and the IL 6 deficient male mice developed spontan eous knee OA. These findings suggest that IL 1B and IL 6 parado ically have a joint protective role by a secondary regulatory system that counteracts the catabolic effects of inflammation. One such candidate is SOCS, which inhibits cellular inflammatory response as a cytokine inducible negative regulator of cytokine signal ing. Interestingly, concerning the gender effect in IL 6 deficient mice, it was reported that estrogen or pro gesterone could increase the e pression levels of SOCS1.

Indeed, e pression of SOCS1 was increased in OA cartilage in parallel to damage severity, and SOCS1 e pression was directly induced by IL 1B in human articular chondrocytes in our study. Our e periments clearly showed suppressive effects of SOCS1 on IL 1B induced MMPs and ADAMTS 4 production in human chondro cytes in both SOCS1 overe pression and knockdown sys tems. These findings suggest that IL 1B inducible SOCS1 acts as a negative regulator of IL 1B in human chondro cytes in OA pathogenesis, and the absent efficacy of anti IL 1B treatment could, in part, result from the loss of this chondroprotective role of SOCS1. In addition, Fan et al. reported that OA chondrocytes we

Detailed discussions about the numerical performance of other re

Detailed discussions about the numerical performance of other reconstruction algorithms can be found in [17,28].The above-mentioned algorithms have played an important role in promoting the development of ECT technology and found numerous successful applications. It is worth mentioning that static reconstruction algorithms are often used to image a dynamic object [4,8]. However, these approaches exploit only the spatial relationship of the objects of interest, without using any temporal dynamics of the underlying process, which are not optimal for reconstructing a dynamic object unless the inversion solution is temporally uncorrelated.

ECT measurement tasks often involve time-varying objects, and will be more applicable to image a dynamic object using a dynamic reconstruction algorithm that considers the temporal correlations of a dynamic object.

In the field of ECT image reconstruction, dynamic reconstruction algorithms do not attract enough attention at present. Fortunately, several algorithms, such as the particle filter (PF) technique [29], the Kalman filter (KF) method [30] and the four-dimensional imaging algorithm [31], had been proposed for tackling the dynamic reconstruction tasks. Overall, the investigations of the dynamic reconstruction algorithms in the field of ECT are far from perfect, and finding an efficient dynamic reconstruction algorithm remains a critical issue.

Based on the RPCA method, a dynamic reconstruction model that utilizes the multiple measurement vectors is presented in this paper, where the evolution process of a dynamic object is regarded as a sequence of 2-D images with different temporal sparse AV-951 deviations from a common background.

An objective functional that simultaneously considers the temporal constraint and the spatial constraint is proposed, in which the images are reconstructed in a batching pattern. An iteration scheme that integrates the merits of the ADIO method and the FBS technique is developed for solving the established objective functional. Numerical simulations are Cilengitide implemented to validate the feasibility of the proposed algorithm.The rest of this paper is organized as follows: based on the RPCA method, a reconstruction model that utilizes the multiple measurement vectors is proposed in Section 2.

The original image reconstruction model is formulated into an optimization problem, and a new objective functional is established in Section 3. In Section 4, an iteration scheme that integrates the advantages of the ADIO method and the FBS algorithm is developed for solving the proposed objective functional.

8 �� 10? 5 N?s/m?2 is the equivalent spherical radius which can

8 �� 10? 5 N?s/m?2. is the equivalent spherical radius which can be calculated by R��=3R12L43. The radial displacement w of the shell is given by:w=FexKQe��xcos2��cos��t(2)where Fex is the amplitude of the exciti
There is a common interest on mapping and studying the bed constitution of natural water bodies, artificial harbours, or inland waterways for water management issues or navigability of shipping pathways, especially at the presence of a mud layer rich in fine-grained sediments. In the past, this non-consolidated, near-bottom mud layer was only assigned to few locations in channels, harbours and bays, but it is also a ubiquitous phenomenon in any natural water body [1]. It is present in any natural water body with sufficient supply of fine-grained sediment and periods of low flow velocity such as lakes and estuaries.

Acoustic techniques are extensively used in hydrographic surveys for lakebed mapping as they provide relatively rapid coverage of large lakebed areas compared to direct sampling methods [2,3]. But the inherent problem at the presence of a mud layer is the acoustic delineation and mapping of the lakebed surface. The mud density is slightly higher than that of water and increases gradually with depth [4], hence the impedance contrast offered to an acoustic wave by the water-mud-lakebed interface is less significant than by a water-lakebed interface. To overcome these difficulties of lakebed mapping McAnally et al. [4] emphasized the research need for improving or combining existing measurement techniques.

To support acoustic techniques for mud layer and lakebed mapping complementary methodologies Entinostat with a soil physical approach are recommendable and have already been applied [1,3,4]. However, these methods require intensive sampling effort. So far there is no common standardized method that delineates water, mud and consolidated lakebed sediments at the presence of a distinctive transition zone from water to lakebed. Many studies reported the development of sensors that combine cone penetrometer with water content measurement systems such as time domain reflectrometry (TDR) or time domain transmissometry (TRT) [5�C7]. All these presented probes and methods were developed for agricultural or mountainous forested soils [6,7], but not for surveying the challenging environment of a lake.

Therefore some inadequacies of these probes for the intended application were their standardization, lack of ruggedness, accuracy of penetration resistance PR measurement and obviously the very small maximal measurable depth of 40 to 60 cm.Thus, the purpose of the study was the adaptation of commonly used and well-known soil physical measurement techniques for the in situ delineation of mud and shallow lakebed-sediment layers within a hydrographic survey.

The array of this second prototype is simpler as it is composed o

The array of this second prototype is simpler as it is composed of two sub-arrays, one for each hand, of only eight elements each (see Figure 4). The force sensors are now of longitudinal shape (Interlink Electronics FSR 408 [15]) and are placed on the flat faces of an octagonal bar. It is sturdier as there is no soldering under the pressure sensitive area. Therefore, lifetime related to wear and tear, due to physical contact, must be similar to that of the force sensor, which is 10 million actuations. Moreover, since it has fewer force sensors this implementation is cheaper and has a quicker response time than the first one. An LCD was also added to show messages to the user.Figure 4.Second prototype of the proposed device.2.2. Control ElectronicsFigure 5 shows the schematic of the control electronics.

The rows of the matrix are connected to analog switches (ADG734, Analog Devices, Norwood, MA, USA) and the columns to transimpedance amplifiers (based on LMV324 operational amplifiers, Texas Instruments, Dallas, TX, USA). A microcontroller (PIC18F4680) scans the array by closing the switches sequentially through general purpose I/O ports. The addressed row is grounded while the other rows remain c
As the Geographic Information System (GIS) has been used for a wide range of transportation applications, positional errors inherent in spatial data become critical for ensuring spatial problem-solving and decision-making. However, GIS involves spatial data from multiple sources and different types. People are used to making decisions without knowledge of either positional errors in the data or their impact on output information.

In GIS for transportation, various data-collection methods or devices have been used to maintain and update a spatial database, of which the Global Positioning Carfilzomib System (GPS) provides a cost effective and efficient means of collecting spatial and non-spatial data along roadways. One emerging GPS-based method is to equip vehicles with Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) receivers and numerous sensors [1�C3]. All data coming from the vehicles are spatially and temporally referenced, and therefore they are adaptable in GIS.However, positional uncertainties inevitably exist in GPS data points and roadway centerline maps.

Although numerous map-matching algorithms have been proposed to correctly integrate GPS data points with a roadway centerline map [4�C7], positional uncertainties still exist in snapped GPS-derived coordinates along roadway centerlines. These uncertainties increase and propagate to output products from GIS. Therefore, to make informed decisions, it is necessary to know the quality of output information associated with different levels of input data quality. Specifically, GIS applications should support optimum use of input data and, conversely, the optimum input for data use [8].

Sometimes cargo goes missing due to unpredictable issues, such as

Sometimes cargo goes missing due to unpredictable issues, such as incorrectly or incompletely filled out worksheets. Cloud services with long-distance RFID for pallet inventory are proposed to solve these problems. Some functions were suggested by researchers based on Table 2 for us to develop with cloud services:Functions for reading barcode IDs.Functions for storing barcode IDs.Functions for connecting barcode IDs.Figure 1.Traditional cargo tagged with dispatch list. Some of them are barcode-enabled, but others are not (as-is).3.2. RFID/Zigbee-Based Pallet MonitoringIn T Company, pallets are moved using a conveyer inside the factory. The current position of the pallets and what goods are on the pallets is important information. Traditional systems for monitoring pallets rely on barcode tags on the goods.

This study adopted RFID technology for monitoring the goods and pallets more precisely and quickly. Monitoring services for monitoring pallet position is another key cloud service that needs to be considered for the logistic cloud. They include:Functions for using RFID to monitor pallets and goods on moving conveyers.Functions for using IP cameras to monitor pallets and goods inside factories.Functions for notifying staff about the condition and information related to pallets and cargo.3.3. Location-Based Logistic TransportationPallet inventory and pallet monitoring are regarded as indoor shipping. Outdoor shipping by T Company is also considered here. Pallets and goods in T Company are inventoried by staff, and the data is stored in the database of T Company.

All the goods are sealed and put into containers, as shown in Figures 223,3, ,44 andand55 and and6.6. All containers are shipped to a third party at a certain time. Therefore, the tracking of goods is important for both T Company and its third parties. Traditionally, containers are sealed AV-951 using disposable container locks. Once the container is sealed, all the information is written on a shipping list. The list contains a series of numbers, which mapped to the disposable container seal shown in Figure 6. When the container arrives at the destination port, the staff unseals the lock by breaking the lock. Some issues related to this process are:Broken seals are not reusable. This may cause environmental and recycling issues.Disposable seals are designed only for sealing and can’t be located during transportation.

Container security is an important issue.Container shipping enterprises waste human resources on container inventory.Figure 2.IoT-technology-enabled logistic scenario. RFID and barcode tags on cargo at the same time (to-be).Figure 3.Pallets and goods on the conveyer. Operators are required to dispatch cargo into categories (as-is).Figure 4.IoT-technology-enabled real-time cargo monitoring and dispatching through computers and work stations (to-be).Figure 5.Photograph of disposable container lock.Figure 6.

jpl nasa gov/) As the ��zoom lens�� for Terra, ASTER data can b As the ��zoom lens�� for Terra, ASTER data can be used by other Terra and space-borne instruments for validation and calibration. Since both MODIS and ASTER are on the same satellite, ASTER provides an opportunity to validate MODIS observational data.The purposes of this study were: (1) to propose a new approach to obtain Tsoil and Tveg within a given pixel; (2) to propose a new practical method to define a VI-Ts diagram using the information of vegetation and bare soil components within pixels; (3) to validate the proposed method by using ASTER, MODIS and ground-based data; (4) to compare the proposed method with the traditional method across a semiarid agricultural region in the North China Plain through 2003.2.

?Study Area and Data Collection2.1.

Study Area and Ground Data CollectionThe North China Plain (NCP) is one of main crop regions in China. The region displays a typical continental monsoon climate. The yearly mean air temperature is 13.1 ��C, and the annual precipitation is about 610 mm, of which about 70% falls between June and August. Therefore, the NCP is zoned as a semiarid agricultural region. Our study area (30 km �� 30 km) locates at the center of the NCP (Figure 2). The light, temperature and water conditions support a 1-year 2-harvest cropping system (winter wheat (Oct.-Jun.) – summer maize (Jul.-Sep.) in this study area. Winter wheat is mainly dependent on irrigation. Usually, about four irrigations are required in the whole growing lifecycle of winter wheat.

The Yucheng Experimental Station (YES, Latitude 36��49��51�� N, Longitude 116��34��18�� E, 26m above the sea level) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences GSK-3 locates in the study area.Figure 2.Study area. On the right is the ASTER false-color image (UTM-N50, WGS-84, 15 m, Band 3, Brefeldin_A 2, 1). The red part is vegetation, mainly winter wheat. The green rectangle in the ASTER image is the Yucheng Experimental Station (YES).Regular meteorological data recorded at the time when the EOS-Terra satellite overpassed our study area were collected from a flux station in the YES through 2003, including air temperature, humidity, wind speed, precipitation, downward and upward shortwave solar radiation, and downward and upward long-wave radiation [19]. The bulk temperature of an infinitely thick vegetation canopy is close to ambient air temperature [10], so observed air temperature can be used to validate Ts of wet points (Ts_wet, it corresponds to the minimum Tveg) in this study.

Attaining interoperability among these various protocols is alway

Attaining interoperability among these various protocols is always desirable so that applications of one network paradigm can avail the services offered by other networks. Therefore, by empowering sensor nodes with IP (Internet Protocol) features we get a unified and simple naming and addressing hierarchy and consequently we obtain a certain level of interoperability among different sensor network standards. With the help of IP in sensor networks, we can also utilize the tools already available for configuring, managing, commissioning or accounting of the IP networks. Since the underlying protocols are based upon IP, designer of new sensor applications can use existing standards to speed up the design and development process. The network of IP enabled USN devices is usually termed as IP-USN (IP-based Ubiquitous Sensor Networks).

One of the promising features of IP-USN is remote accessibility of sensor nodes. This enables remote monitoring and management of sensitive environments such as healthcare systems. Health care systems are connected to patients and monitor patient’s health, levels of medications and procedural outcomes. In such systems, it is not just sufficient to ensure confidentiality by encrypting the information sent out by the sensor nodes but it is also necessary to detect malicious or abnormal events in the system. Attacks and intrusions, for instance DoS (Denial of Service) or DDoS (Distributed DoS), against such systems may permit fatal damage to the health and safety of the patients. Such threats can be minimized by using firewalls and packet filtering.

However, mechanisms that attempt to detect intrusions when occurred are also inevitable so that the intruder cannot damage the system for a long duration. This problem of detection is not specific to IP-USN. A wide variety of literature is available on intrusion detection for both IP and sensor networks. However, IP-USN devices supports broader range of applications, for example, a few of the implementations of IP-USN now have the support of embedded web services [2]. Any possible security holes in the implementation of such applications can be eliminated by updating the firmware of the device or by using any signature based IDS which knows about the pattern of the request required to exploit the bug.

As updating firmware is not scalable, considering the large scale deployment of IP-USN, the later approach of signature-based IDS is an appealing solution.Moreover, other attacks Batimastat which exploit the weak hardware of the sensor networks are also possible in IP-USN. For example, IP layer usually works with available transport layer protocol. A few of the IP-USN implementations, such as Arch Rock [3], provide standard TCP and UDP protocols as transport layer for IP-USN; so that one can make connection easily to a sensor node to fetch the readings.