EGFP mice showing that cubilin mRNA levels were significantly reduced in iso lated regions of the small intestine expressing EGFP as compared to non EGFP expressing regions. At the protein level, unlike what was seen in the kidney, enterocytes displayed both expression of the cubilin allele bearing the targeted deletion/EGFP Calcitriol proliferation insertion and contained immuno logically detectable cubilin. Since enterocytes have been shown to release Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries cubilin in association with extracellular surfactant like particles, which bind to the apical por tion of the cell, it is reasonable to expect that cubilin expressed in some enterocytes from the wild type cubilin allele is being released and taken up Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries via cubilin binding re ceptors expressed by enterocytes in which the wild type cubilin allele is suppressed.
Furthermore, this form of cubilin appears to be capable of endocytosis Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries of its ligand, intrinsic factor co balamin complex, since intrinsic factor uptake was similar in enterocytes with suppressed wild type cubilin allele and those with an active wild type cubilin allele. Unlike what was observed in the kidney where Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries amnionless accumulates intracellularly in cubilin deficient cells, the consequences of cubilin deficiency on amnionless trafficking in intestinal cells was not clear. Based on our intestinal data, we speculated that a secreted form of intes tinal cubilin might act in a non cell autonomous manner to prevent the accumulation of amnionless in enterocytes having lower endogenous cubilin expression. It is also im portant to point out that the intestine appears to express multiple cubilin and amnionless isoforms, which have different stoichiometries in the kidney.
Therefore, it is possible that in the intestine, cubilin and amnionless trafficking to the apical cell membrane Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries are not interdependent. The finding that 5Aza and TSA treatments were un able to release the suppression of the silenced cubilin allele suggests that DNA methylation and histone deacetylation may not be the only mechanisms of regu lation of cubilin monoallelic expression. Indeed, diverse mechanisms exist to mediate allelic inactivation includ ing interplay of DNA modifications by DNA methylation and modifications of the histone proteins by acetylation, methylation, SUMOylation or phosphorylation. Additionally, imprinted monoallelic expression of certain gene clusters is in part mediated by noncoding RNAs under the control of methylation of imprint control ele ments.
Intriguingly, the cubilin gene is located in the mouse chromosome 2 proximal region, which is one of several chromosomal http://www.selleckchem.com/products/XL184.html regions known to contain genes that undergo parental imprinting during development. Our observation that groups of adjacent prox imal tubule cells shared the same inactive cubilin allele suggests that the allelic inactivation is inherited clonally from a progenitor that underwent imprinting during development.