5 U/mL was an independent

5 U/mL was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (HR 0.34, 95% CI, 0.13-0.85, P=0.0216) (Table 5). Table 5 Multivariate analysis for overall survival Discussion The majority of patients with pancreatic cancer present with unresectable disease and appropriate selection of patients for CRT continues to be a challenge and the treatment of LAPC continues to evolve. Analysis of prognostic factors may be useful in determining which patients would benefit from intensification of therapy and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical designing future clinical trials. CA 19-9 is the most common and important tumor marker used in for patients with pancreatic cancer. There have been many

studies evaluating CA 19-9 as prognostic for resectable pancreatic cancer. RTOG 9704 demonstrated a prognostic role for postoperative CA 19-9 in patients with resectable pancreatic carcinoma following surgery. With a post-resection CA 19-9 higher than 90 U/mL, patients had a highly significant increased risk of death Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (HR, 3.34; P<0.0001) compared Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical with those with a value less

than or equal to that cutoff. This was the most important predictor of death in this cohort of patients. The results of this analysis of postoperative CA 19-9 level are important because they clearly identify a subgroup of patients who have a much higher risk of death after surgery with curative intent. In patients receiving systemic chemotherapy for metastatic disease as well as LAPC, CA 19-9 levels have also been shown to be of prognostic significance in terms of overall survival. Tsavaris et al. demonstrated through multivariate Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical analysis

CA 19-9 levels of >30 times the normal limit had a significant independent effect on survival (5). Serum CA 19-9 alterations have been defined in a number of ways. In a study by Takahashi et al., they developed a new classification Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical utilizing http://www.selleckchem.com/products/kpt-330.html pretreatment CA 19-9 and proportional alteration of CA 19-9 2 months after the initiation of treatment (14) Their categories were defined as: I (increased), MD (modestly decreased), and SD (substantially decreased). In a study by Halm et al., a decrease of CA 19-9 during chemotherapy with gemcitabine predicted overall survival time in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer (8). In their study, they found that a decrease in CA 19-9 of >20% had the greatest prognostic impact. There is limited data identifying CA 19-9 AV-951 as a prognostic factor in patients with LAPC treated with concurrent CRT as the primary therapy (10-11). In a study by Micke et al. patients with LAPC were treated with hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy to a total dose of 44.8 Gy combined with 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid. Patients with a pretreatment CA 19-9 less than the median of 420 U/mL had a new post better median survival versus those with levels greater than the median (12.3 vs. 7.1 months, P=0.0056) (10).

The critical micelle concentration was 6mM (surface tension), wit

The critical micelle concentration was 6mM (surface tension), with a hydrodynamic radius of 30Å (light scattering) and 25.4Å (SANS), area per molecule of about 57.6Å, and aggregation number of 84. Solubilization of drugs in ASC-8 micellar dispersions was reported by Palma et al. [16]. Solubilization of drugs was performed above the CMC and Krafft temperature Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical determined by surface tension and conductivity measurements. The solubility of hydrophobic drugs, such as phenacetin, Oligomycin A danthron, selleck Pazopanib anthralin, and retinoic acid, was greatly enhanced by the solubilization. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity exhibited by the ascorbate rings

that form the hydrophilic external shells in ASC-8 micellar dispersions can protect degradable materials that have been solubilized in the internal hydrophobic micellar core from radical-initiated oxidation. 1.4. Encapsulation of Ascorbyl Palmitate (ASC-P) in Carriers ASC-P has been used as a model drug for nanosized lipid carriers. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical As an antioxidant, ASC-P has been also used

in the cosmetics, food, and pharmaceutical industries. Teeranachaideekul et al. reported the physicochemical characterization and in vitro release studies of ASC-P-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC gels) [17, 18]. NLC gels were prepared Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical by a high-pressure homogenization technique using oil Labrafil M1944 and solid lipids such as cetyl alcohol (CA), Imwitor 900 (GMS), and nonionic hydrophilic white beeswax (BW). Nanosized particles <250nm with low polydispersity indices were prepared although microscopic observation indicated that the nanoparticles were nonspherical. The encapsulation efficiency of ASC-P was almost 100%, and its zeta potential was less than −30mV. Differential Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical scanning calorimetry (DSC) and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) measurements indicated that the lipid in each formulation was recrystallized in the solid state, possessing a less-ordered structure compared to that of the bulk material. The release study of ASC-P from each formulation

using Franz diffusion cells revealed that the lipid matrix type affects both the rate and the release pattern. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical The release rate was in the order of ASC-P-loaded BW > ASC-P-loaded GMS > ASC-P-loaded CA. In viscoelastic analysis, all formulations showed that the storage modulus (G′) was higher than the loss modulus (G′′) and that the phase angle was <45°, indicating that they possess more elastic than viscous properties. Drug_discovery Thus, NLC gel can be used as a colloidal carrier for topical application. Wittayasuporn et al. reported encapsulation of ASC-P into methyl ether-terminated poly(ethylene oxide)-4-methoxycinnamolyphthaloylchitosan (PCPLC) nanoparticles [19]. PCPLC is a UV-screening amphiphilic chitosan derivative and is able to self-assemble into nanoparticles. Encapsulation of ASC-P into PCPLC resulted in 689nm particles with encapsulation efficiency of 84% at a 56% drug-loading rate.

14 Anatomical studies do support the presence

of input-sp

14 Anatomical studies do support the presence

of input-specific alterations of excitatory connections in the DLPFC in schizophrenia. In the DLPFC, pyramidal neurons (selleckchem Figure 1 C) are the principal source of glutamate neurotransmission, as well as the targets of the majority of glutamate-containing axon terminals. Although the number of these neurons does not appear to be altered in schizophrenia,15,16 neuronal density in the DLPFC has been reported to be increased in schizophrenia.17 Increased cell packing density has been interpreted as evidence of a reduction in the amount of cortical neuropil, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the axon terminals, selleck chem dendritic spines, and glial processes that occupy the space between neurons.18 Consistent with this interpretation, synaptophysin protein, a marker of axon terminals, has been reported to be decreased in the DLPFC of subjects with schizophrenia.19,21 Furthermore, gene expression profiling studies have found reduced Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical tissue levels of gene transcripts that encode proteins involved in the presynaptic regulation of neurotransmission.22 Dendritic spines are the principal targets of excitatory synapses to pyramidal neurons. Although most dendritic spines present are Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical stable in number during adulthood,23 they are subject to a number of neuroplastic changes, such as a loss of their presynaptic

excitatory input. In schizophrenia, dendritic spine density in pyramidal neurons has been reported to be lower in the DLPFC24,25; understanding the nature of these neuroplastic responses requires knowledge of the specific circuits that are affected and the developmental mechanisms Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical that might underlie these changes. Reduced excitatory connections in schizophrenia are specific to a subset of pyramidal neurons Pyramidal

neurons can be divided into subgroups based on the brain region targeted by their Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical principal axonal projection and the sources of their excitatory inputs; both of these characteristics are associated with the location of pyramidal cell bodies in different layers of the cortex (Figure 1 C). Anacetrapib For example, many pyramidal cells in layers 2 to 3 send axonal projections to other cortical regions, pyramidal neurons in layer 5 tend to project to the striatum and other subcortical structures, and pyramidal neurons in layer 6 furnish projections primarily to the thalamus.26 Studies of basilar dendritic spine density on Golgi-impregnaled pyramidal neurons in each cortical layer of the DLPFC in the same cohort of subjects found a significant effect of diagnosis on spine density only for pyramidal neurons in deep layer 3 (Figure 2).25,27 Figure 2. Pyramidal neuron dendritic spines in the human DLPFC.

In a crossover pharmacokinetic study to limit patient variabilit

In a crossover pharmacokinetic study to limit patient variability, nab-pacliataxel had higher peak plasma and unbound concentrations (88). Greater unbound fraction of paclitaxel has been hypothesized to lead to greater efficacy seen in many clinical trials. One possible mechanism of efficacy by the albumin-bound agent may be related to enhanced tumor uptake through interaction with the SPARC (secreted protein acid rich in cysteine) molecule. The SPARC gene, highly conserved among vertebrates, regulates the assembly, organization, and turnover of the extracellular matrix by binding and modulating the deposition of multiple structural Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical components and

attenuating the activity of extracellular proteases. SPARC is expressed in cancer-associated stroma and in malignant cells

of some types, affecting tumor Lenalidomide FDA development, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical invasion, metastases, angiogenesis and inflammation. SPARC-induced changes in the tumor microenvironment can suppress or promote progression of different cancers depending on the tissue and cell type. SPARC expression is related to tumor aggressiveness though the exact mechanism is unclear. The molecule regulates the effects of bFGF and VEGF on MAPK signaling and increased expression of SPARC in pancreas Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical tumors has been related to poorer survival (91),(92). Infante et al. characterized SPARC expression in peritumoral fibroblasts and pancreas cells from 299 patients Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical with resectable pancreas cancer. Median survival was halved in patients’ tumors that expressed SPARC (15 months vs 30 months) and when cases were controlled for other prognostic factors (tumor size, positive lymph nodes, margin status, tumor grade, and age) the hazard ratio (HR) was significant (HR 1.89; 95% CI, 1.31 to 2.74). Therapies combining nab-paclitaxel with kinase assay gemcitabine are under investigation in pancreas cancer given Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the high expression of SPARC in pancreas cancer. Several studies are underway and preliminary result showed impressive responsive rate and encouraging survival outcome. In a phase I/II trial, 63 previously untreated metastatic

patients Dacomitinib were treated with nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine and among the 49 evaluable patients, 1 achieved CR (2%), 12 PRs (24%) and 20 SD (41%) (clinical benefit rate 67%). The response rate and PFS correlated with SPARC expression by immunohistochemistry (89). A single institution retrospective review of this combination in neoadjuvant setting for borderline and unresectable patients confirmed the high response rate (69% PR and 23% SD). About 23% of patients in the study went on to surgical resection with curative intent (90). This regimen is being evaluated in a phase III randomized trial among patients with untreated metastatic pancreas cancer. Conclusion Despite advancement in anti-cancer therapeutics, treatment options remain limited and prognosis poor for patients with pancreas cancer.

IS participated in the design of the study, assisted in the revie

IS participated in the design of the study, assisted in the review of the literature and assisted in the preparation of the manuscript. PN advised on the study design, including statistical analysis, assisted in the formulation of the discussion, and assisted in interpretation of the study results. All authors read and approved the final Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical manuscript. Pre-publication history The pre-publication history for this paper

can be accessed here: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-227X/12/9/prepub Supplementary Material Additional file 1: Bland-Altman plots for different estimated weights. This additional file contains three (3) graphs showing the Bland-Altman plots for each of the different methods of weight estimation against measured (actual) weight. Click here for file(126K, pdf) Additional file 2: Bland-Altman plots for different estimated weights. This additional file contains three (3) Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical graphs showing the Bland-Altman plots for each of the different methods of weight

estimation against measured (actual) weight. Click here for file(156K, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical pdf)
The relationship between effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and improved survival of patients suffering cardiac arrest is clear [1]. Unfortunately, the quality of CPR performed by health care professionals in both the in-hospital and out-of-hospital environments is often poor [2,3]. Examination of the CPR practices of health care professionals in both of these environments reveals that chest compressions are too few and shallow, too many ventilations are given, and there are significant pauses during active chest compressions Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical [2,3]. Each of these errors may significantly reduce the chance of successful resuscitation. The use of a mechanical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical automated chest compression device (A-CPR), may lead to superior coronary perfusion pressures by addressing the shortcomings of conventional manual CPR (C-CPR) [4], thus improving survival rates from out-of-hospital

cardiac arrest (OHCA). The 2010 European Resuscitation Council Guidelines suggest that mechanical devices may have an important role in the resuscitation of patients in the prehospital environment Dacomitinib [5]. selleck chemical Cisplatin studies investigating the use of this device are limited. Laboratory and clinical studies have shown blood pressure levels approaching normal levels with automatic chest compression devices and selleck chemicals llc better neurological outcomes following prolonged cardiac arrest [6-8]. Three human studies to date have shown a similar effect on coronary perfusion pressures and also improved rates of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), [9-11] but conflicting effects on survival to hospital discharge.

The GDS, assessed in 2008, has excellent psychometric characteris

The GDS, assessed in 2008, has excellent psychometric characteristics within the age span of our population, has good validity as a continuous dimensional measure of depressive symptomology, and good sensitivity and specificity for clinical selleckbio depression when dichotomized (Sheikh and Yesavage 1986).

We therefore chose the GDS as our “anchor” assessment and scaled all other assessments against the GDS. We chose GDS-15 over CESD-10 because it was specifically developed for use in geriatric population (the mean age of NHS participants were both over Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 70 years old when either instrument was examined), it contained fewer somatic items. In cognitively intact patients Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical older than 65 years, the GDS screen is the preferred instrument because the psychometric data on the CES-D are mixed in this population (Sharp and Lipsky 2002). Although the quality of the available measures used across waves differs, our approach down-weights those instruments that do not correspond well with the GDS. Our protocol

was as follows: using all NHS women with GDS scores (regardless of the availability of genetic data), we regressed the GDS score on all depression-related measures available in that wave, using a linear regression model. For example, using all measures of the depression phenotype available in 2004, we estimated the following linear regression: (1) On the basis of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical this linear regression, we predicted the value that the GDS score would have taken if it has been assessed in 2004. We estimated similar models for each interview wave, 1992–2006. For instruments with missing data on a few items, we used the average of nonmissing items if at least half of the items were Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical reported and a missing indicator method for observations missing more than half of the items. In a second step, we used the regression coefficients from the initial Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical models to predict the value of GDS for each participant at each wave, had he or she been given the GDS. In this way, all individual depression measures collected at one wave were rescaled and translated to a single common

scale (GDS-standardized score) for each participant, and these estimates could be obtained even for individuals who did not complete the GDS in 2008. The final phenotype was the average of the Cilengitide rescaled depression scores from all available questionnaire cycles (up to seven waves): (2) This approach maximized the available sample size and optimized the KPT-330 molecular weight information available on lifetime experiences of depression, because anyone with at least one wave of information with depression assessment was included. We also believe it decreased the transient component of the measure compared to using a single-wave assessment, which would strengthen our ability to detect genetic predictors. In fact, in our analytic sample 132 (1.9%) women had only one measure of depression, 136 (1.

AVR for high-risk patients, data for PPM was not reported Howeve

AVR for high-risk patients, data for PPM was not reported. However, postoperative aortic valve areas and gradients were slightly better for TAVI than AVR: 1.59±0.48 vs. 1.44±0.4 cm2 (P=.002); 10.2 mm & 11.5 mm (P=0.008). At 1 year, relief of symptoms was similar in both groups.

The reported valve areas suggest that smaller prostheses were implanted in both groups. In addition to having no capability for aortic leaflet resection, TAVI has no capability for aortic root enlargement. Dacron patch graft angioplasty is commonly employed during AVR to enlarge small aortic roots at least one size to allow implantation of a larger conventional prosthesis. At present, only selleck screening library biological prosthetic valves are available for TAVI. Mechanical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical valves are still considered the optimal choice in younger patients.2 While some patients who have experienced biological valve failure may have undergone “resleeving” selleck chemicals procedures during a second TAVI procedure, it is currently Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical not established as a standard therapy.12, 13 Concurrent CAB was performed in 27% to 34% of our patients. Although angioplasty would be an option in some cases, many Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical had diffusely calcified multivessel disease. Finally, TAVI requires adequate peripheral arterial access. Peripheral vascular disease was noted to be present in 43% of the PARTNER trial patients.4, 5 Future Evolution of

TAVI Studies using new prostheses are attempting to overcome issues with vascular access by reducing the size of the unit that has to be introduced into the femoral artery. Thinner, steerable catheters designed to minimize contact with the aortic wall are also in development. TAVI systems that are easier to align and deploy, and can be redeployed if needed, will soon be available. However, the current family of TAVI devices Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical is still

based on the concept of fixing Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the prosthesis in position by forceful dilatation and compression of the stenotic calcified aortic valve leaflet tissue. The material that must be present for this to be achieved is only available in the presence of calcific degeneration of the aortic valve, as seen in aortic stenosis; this is because the aortic valve has no annulus. AVR by surgical implantation involves resecting the diseased aortic leaflets, leaving a narrow rim Anacetrapib at the base of the leaflet that consists of the junction of the leaflet with the aortic wall, aorto-mitral continuity, membranous septum, and the shoulder of the left ventricular myocardium. The left ventricular outflow tract begins at the lower margin of the anterior mitral leaflet and extends to where the aortic leaflets attach to the aortic wall and left ventricle; the posterior one-third to one-half consists of the aorto-mitral continuity and the anterior mitral leaflet. Thus, in the absence of the ring of calcified tissue seen with calcific aortic stenosis in the elderly, some other approach for prosthetic fixation will need to be developed.

96 Finally, KATP channels display metabolic and mechanical co-act

96 Finally, KATP channels display metabolic and mechanical co-activation, 99 which may help explain some of the differences between order Topotecan experimental and clinical findings on the extent of ATP-reduction needed to activate them. In addition, this insight could shed light on hitherto ill-explored links

between ischaemic and mechanical preconditioning. As will be apparent from the above, the currently available information on the molecular substrates of cardiac SAC poses more questions than it answers. A number of reasons contribute to this. It is notoriously difficult to control and/or quantify the extent and quality of local mechanical stimuli that an individual ion channel is exposed to. 130 Tools to apply strain at whole-cell, tissue, and organ levels exist (including the application of shear stress, axial stretch, or cell volume changes), but there is no commonly implemented ‘gold standard’ for the stimulation of SAC. 27 Furthermore, these techniques have been used with a wide variety of cellular models from different species and developmental stages, making cross comparison of results challenging. In addition, it is difficult to interrelate macroscopic interventions and observations at cell and tissue levels with molecular substrates: in part because there is no ‘zero-strain’ reference even in patch clamp studies. Attempts

to explore causal links from low-level mechanism to integrated response, and back, include changes in gene expression, 87 pharmacological interventions, 131 and computational modelling. 132–135 Further challenges arise from the possibility that ventricular SAC may be localised in T-tubules, caveolae, or intercalated discs. This is thought to explain why patch clamping of single SAC

is so rare in freshly isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes from adult mammals. 130 One possible way around this problem may be to use pre-exposure to α1A receptor stimulation, to aid SAC translocation from T-tubules to the sarcolemma. 59 Another would be pre-stretching of the cardiac tissue prior to cell isolation, as this can cause surface membrane incorporation of caveolae. 43 Entinostat Thirdly, one could isolate the T-tubules using sequential centrifugation of homogenised cardiomyocytes followed by purification of T-tubule membranes by vesicle immuno-isolation and reconstitution into a continuous membrane. 136 It might then be possible to directly patch clamp SAC on the isolated T-tubule membrane. Less invasively, scanning ion conductance microscopy, which generates a three-dimensional topographical map of the cell surface prior to patch clamping, has been suggested as a means to directly target the T-tubule ostium where SAC are more likely to be present. 137 On the other hand, there is evidence to suggest that SAC may activate indirectly via second messenger signalling cascades.

5 The KD is comprised mostly of fats, with low protein and low-a

5 The KD is U0126 MAPK comprised mostly of fats, with low protein and low-as-possible glucose levels, combined with caloric and fluid intake restriction. In terms of weight, 1 gram of glucose and protein is added for every 3 and 4 grams of fat, respectively. The diet is intended to

replace glucose as the main energy source in the brain with ketone bodies, a product of fatty Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical acid degradation. Studies have shown that the KD has the potential to decrease significantly the severity and number of seizures in epileptic children.1 However, the diet is difficult to maintain, and children often feel hungry, frustrated, and depressed. Any intake of cake or candy can lead to seizures. Thus, although parents generally prefer the diet over anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs), which have potential side effects, even the most enthusiastic ones may have trouble adhering to it, leading to a high attrition rate.1,6 The diet has been largely promoted by the Pediatric Neurology team of Johns Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Hopkins Hospital, headed by Dr JM Freeman, together with Drs EPG

Vining and E Kossoff and others.1,7,8 A systematic review of 26 published papers written on the use of KD in epileptic children concluded that there is evidence to support Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the cautious use of KDs in children with refractory epilepsy.3 We use the classic Johns Hopkins protocol at the Schneider Children’s Medical Center of Israel, a tertiary university-affiliated medical facility. This review discusses the indications and contraindications for the use of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the KD, its effect on seizure number and severity, electroencephalographic (EEG) tracings, cognition and alertness levels, and its application in young infants with severe forms of epilepsy. The KD

has been used worldwide despite the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical occasional difficulties associated with it.9 There are some issues specific to Israel, as mentioned in Kossoff and McGrogan’s paper.9 The Israeli medical centers in Tel Hashomer and Holon had enrolled about 50 patients, and the authors described the issues uniquely relevant to their populations. Many families, especially Orthodox Jewish ones, are reluctant to use medications and are willing to try alternative Brefeldin_A measures if possible. They also need to contend with the caveat of consuming meat with milk products in order to observe the laws of kashrut. Thus, fish (with gills) and egg recipes can include heavy whipping cream, but those with meat must not. Bread used for religious purposes (e.g. challah as part of the Sabbath meal ritual and exclusive matzah consumption during Passover) is not suitable for a 4:1 ratio diet, while fruits, vegetables, and olive oil, which are plentiful and popular in Israel, are encouraged. Finally, if the father is a descendant from the priestly lineage (a “cohen”) and is therefore forbidden to enter a place that may hold dead bodies, the KD may have to be started on an outpatient basis, without a supervised fast.

2 ?BackgroundThe background of this work refers mainly to the des

2.?BackgroundThe background of this work refers mainly to the design of embedded vision systems and the application and benefits of the use of LUTs for image segmentation.2.1. Embedded Vision SystemsRecent advances in computers and the improvement in micro-fabrication technology have fostered the design of tiny embedded systems with onboard electronics and sensors that also incorporates image-processing capabilities. For example, in [4], a versatile low cost embedded vision platform was presented to find blobs of a specific color in an image and also perform JPEG compression, frame differentiation, edge detection, image convolution, face detection, and color histogram computation. This embedded system was based on a low-cost CMOS color camera module, a frame buffer chip, and a low-cost microcontroller that processes all the images acquired and which was the inspiration for this work. Additionally, in [8], an intelligent embedded vision system to implement selleck chemicals llc different image filters and perform image correlation and transformation at up to 667 frames per second was proposed. In [9], an embedded vision system was proposed specifically for mobile robot navigation and low power consumption. This embedded system accelerates the basic image processing algorithms required in a mobile robot application, such as low-level image processing, spatial filtering, feature extraction, and block matching operations. In [10], a FPGA was proposed to process the images from a CMOS camera to create an embedded and autonomous image processing system. In [11], an FPGA was also proposed for integrated navigation by combining GPS, gyroscopes, and vehicle odometry. The proposal in [12] was an embedded palmprint recognition system based on the dual-core OMAP 3530 platform to achieve real-time performances. In [13], an embedded vision system was proposed for intelligent driver nighttime assistance and surveillance. The system integrated different devices in order to analyze nighttime vehicle detection, collision warning determination and traffic recording.2.2. Look-Up Tables for Fruit SegmentationIn a general application, fruit can be categorized by using different color features, for example by defining RGB thresholds [14�C16], by analyzing multispectral images [17], by computing the color distance to reference colors [18], by measuring color characteristics [19], by applying fuzzy logic [20] or neural networks [21], or by using LUTs [22,23]. The general use of LUTs has the advantage of reduced run-time computations because of the transformation of the input data into an output value of a range of index values.