Seroepidemiologic studies of influenza among well-returned travel

Seroepidemiologic studies of influenza among well-returned travelers indicate seroconversion in 2.8%,6 and among febrile returning travelers, the incidence of influenza is estimated to be between 5 and 15%.13 Thus, our findings likely represent a significant underestimate of cases of influenza among ill-returned travelers. High hospitalization rates potentially indicate that only more severe infections this website were evaluated at a GeoSentinel site, thereby further underestimating the burden of influenza in travelers. Third, during influenza season in temperate countries, confirmatory diagnostic tests are not often sent once influenza is circulating within a community,

and this study included only confirmed or probable diagnoses. Fourth, absence of immunization history limits our ability to quantify true potential influenza preventability in this cohort. Fifth, given the short incubation period of influenza, we cannot exclude the possibility that some travelers, especially those returning home during their influenza Caspase-dependent apoptosis season, or residing in the tropics or ESEACN, became infected en

route home or after travel. Influenza acquired abroad versus from the country of residence would be impossible to distinguish clinically. Finally, our data do not permit estimation of incidence rates or destination-specific numerical risks for influenza.7,14 This is the single largest analysis of latitudinal patterns of influenza in travelers, to date, and is derived from a multicenter, heterogeneous population, reflecting the spectrum of travel demographics and destinations over a 10-year period. Alternate hemisphere and out-of-season influenza vaccine availability may benefit a small proportion of travelers. As noted previously, while knowledge of influenza prevention among travelers appears to be good, translation of this knowledge into uptake of prevention measures such as vaccination, antiviral prophylaxis, and hand hygiene among travelers remains low.15,16 Proportionate morbidity estimates by region of travel

can inform pre-travel consultation and emphasize the cAMP ease of acquisition of infections such as influenza during travel. These data can inform broad-level decision-making in travel medicine, public health, and health care policy. GeoSentinel: the Global Surveillance Network of the International Society of Travel Medicine is supported by Cooperative Agreement U50/CCU412347 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The funding source (the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) had no role in study design, data analysis and interpretation, or in writing the manuscript. A. K. B., F. v. S., P. L. L., E. S., and M. E. W. state that they have no conflicts of interest to declare. F. C. has received an honorarium to attend the Tamiflu Advisory Board once in 2006. P. G. was sponsored by Sanofi-Pasteur to attend conferences. J. T.

The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support of th

The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support of the Bavarian State Ministry of the Environment and Public Health. We are grateful to the Klinikum Bogenhausen (Munich, Germany) and the laboratories synlab (Dachau, Germany) Alectinib in vitro and Becker, Olgemöller and Partner (Munich, Germany) for providing us with isolates of Enterobacter cloacae. We would like to

thank Henrike Skala and Anika Luze for invaluable technical assistance. “
“An enzyme with mannosyl glycoprotein endo-N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (ENGase)-type activity was partially purified from the extracellular medium of the mould Hypocrea jecorina (Trichoderma reesei). Internal peptides were generated and used to identify the gene in the T. reesei genome. The active enzyme is processed both at the N- and at the C-terminus. High-mannose-type glycoproteins are good substrates, whereas complex-type glycans are not hydrolysed. The enzyme represents the first fungal member of glycoside hydrolase family Selleckchem CDK inhibitor 18 with ENGase-type activity. Bacterial ENGases and the fungal chitinases belonging to the same family show very low homology with Endo T. Database searches identify several highly homologous

genes in fungi and the activity is also found within other Trichoderma species. This ENGase activity, not coregulated with cellulase production, could be responsible for the extensive N-deglycosylation observed for several T. reesei cellulases. Enzymes with mannosyl glycoprotein endo-N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (ENGase)-type activity (EC., acting

on the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl part of N-glycosidically linked oligosaccharides, constitute a group of related proteins, Etofibrate with members found in the glycoside hydrolase families 18, 73 and 85 (Carbohydrate Active Enzymes database at; Cantarel et al., 2008). The ENGases from family 18 are all of bacterial origin (e.g. Endo H from Streptomyces plicatus, Endo F1, F2 and F3 from Flavobacterium meningosepticum). From fungi for which only a few secreted ENGases have been reported, a sequence is only known for family GH85 Endo M from Mucor hiemalis (Fujita et al., 2004). Hypocrea jecorina (called Trichoderma reesei hereafter) is one of the most prolific producers of biomass-degrading enzymes (Lynd et al., 2002). Many of these extracellular cellulases and hemicellulases are bimodular glycoproteins, N-glycosylation seemingly restricted to the catalytic module (Klarskov et al., 1997; Maras et al., 1997; Bower et al., 1998; Harrison et al., 1998; Nevalainen et al., 1998; Hui et al., 2001, 2002; Eriksson et al., 2004). However, single N-acetylglucosamine residues were often found on N-glycosylation sites of isolated cellulase components (Klarskov et al., 1997; Bower et al., 1998; Nevalainen et al., 1998; Hui et al., 2001), suggesting the presence of ENGase activity. This was confirmed by our previous results (Stals et al.

, 2008) (see below) Influencing mutant SOD1 synthesis in muscle

, 2008) (see below). Influencing mutant SOD1 synthesis in muscle cells did not affect motor neuron degeneration in the mutant SOD1 mouse (Miller et al., 2006; Towne et al., 2008). However, overexpression of insulin-like growth factor isoforms exclusively in muscle did slow down progression (Dobrowolny et al., 2005). Therefore, the exact role of muscle in ALS remains an interesting topic of research. The removal of mutant

SOD1, the primary see more cause of motor neuron toxicity, is an obvious therapeutic strategy. This has been achieved by the viral delivery of RNAi against SOD1 (Ralph et al., 2005; Raoul et al., 2005), by intracerebroventricular administration of antisense oligonucleotides (Smith et al., 2006) and by crossbreeding mutant

SOD1 mice with mice that express an shRNA against mutant SOD1 (Xia et al., 2006). Hence, gene silencing holds great promise as a therapy for ALS (and in fact for many neurodegenerative diseases; Maxwell, 2009). The first clinical studies investigating the feasibility of these approaches in humans are under way. As toxicity from aberrant secretion of mutant SOD1 is likely to play a role, targeting this pool of mutant SOD1 may be of interest. The burden of extracellular SOD1 could be reduced using an active or a passive immunization strategy, and this led to a slower disease progression ICG-001 in mutant SOD1 mice (Urushitani et al., 2007). The mutant SOD1 mouse (and rat) has been used extensively

to study compounds or approaches with possible therapeutic value (Turner & Talbot, 2008). The validity of this model has been questioned Methocarbamol because some of the compounds with a positive effect in the mouse were negative in human studies. There may be other explanations. The effects observed in the mouse were often small, and may be easily missed in a clinically and genetically heterogenous human ALS population. Furthermore, the differences in pharmacokinetics between mice and humans were often largely neglected. In addition, the ‘positive’ results obtained in mice often came from (inadequately powered) studies in which administration of the compound began before disease onset, while in humans therapeutic trials are done in patients who have had ALS for at least one, sometimes even several, years. The question is whether the mutant SOD1 mouse is a good model in which to study sporadic ALS. Obviously it is not ideal: sporadic ALS is definitely etiologically different from monogenic mutant SOD1-related familial ALS. Recent studies on transactivation response DNA-binding protein with molecular weight 43 kDa (TDP-43) suggest that there may also be a pathogenic difference, which will be discussed below. The role of TDP-43 was first suspected when it was identified as one of the major constituents of the intraneuronal inclusions characteristically observed in ALS and in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD)–ubiquitin (FTLD-U; Neumann et al., 2006).

The RMS from the C57BL/6J and A/J mice was reconstructed

The RMS from the C57BL/6J and A/J mice was reconstructed Romidepsin in vitro from serial sagittal sections to compare their three-dimensional course and to determine the total numbers of RMS cells in each strain. Our immunohistological staining analysis and imaging revealed that the general configuration of the RMS in both strains was similar (Fig. 3). Moreover, A/J had

approximately 40% more cells in the RMS than C57BL/6J (A/J = 52659 ± 535 and C57BL/6J = 37130 ± 731; Fig. 3B and C). At the cellular level, we wanted to determine if the differences in BrdU-labeled cells between A/J and C57BL/6J are due to differences in cell cycle parameters as explored in the dentate gyrus by Hayes & Nowakowski (2002). First, we determined the LI at each time point under study for both parental strains (Fig. 4). There was an initial increase of LI with lengthening BrdU exposure time, indicative of a constantly dividing cell population. For both strains, the LI reached a plateau of ∼0.2, suggesting

that the actively dividing populations in the RMS accounts for approximately 20% of the total RMS cell population. Using the total RMS cell numbers described in Fig. 3 and a GF value (i.e. the proportion of proliferating cells to the total number of cells in the population) of 0.2, we estimated that the total numbers of actively dividing cells in the RMS were 10531 ± 107 and 7426 ± 146 for A/J and C57BL/6J, respectively. Moreover, the quantitative analysis of the LI curves showed that there were

no significant differences in the cell cycle parameters of the two RMS Mannose-binding protein-associated serine protease populations. The ratio of Ts/Tc was similar (∼0.57), indicating that the relative length of the S-phase (Ts) to the whole cell cycle (Tc) was the same for the two strains. The length of the cell cycle for the proliferative populations in the RMS ranged from 10.5 h (A/J) to 14.5 h (C57BL/6J), and these values overlap with the cell cycle length for the proliferative population in the dentate gyrus (12–14 h) and are also within the 8–18 h range of cell cycle lengths detected in progenitor cells lining the ventricular cavity of the developing cerebral neocortex (Hayes & Nowakowski, 2002; Takahashi et al., 1995). Although the lengths of cell cycle and S-phase for the proliferative population in A/J RMS appeared to be shorter than the lengths detected in the C57BL/6J RMS, such differences did not reach statistical significance. Therefore, the differences in the number of BrdU-labeled cells in the RMS of the two strains reflected differences in the actual number of proliferative cells and was not due to differences in cell cycle or S-phase lengths. In line with this conclusion, the proliferative population size in the A/J RMS was ∼40% larger than C57BL/6J RMS.

The authors declare no conflicts

The authors declare no conflicts Selleckchem Panobinostat of interest. “
“Recent studies have suggested that failing nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regimens may have greater potential to induce the development of resistance mutations, which may limit options for second-line therapy. Antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve individuals aged ≥18 years who initiated triple combination ART between January 2000 and June 2006 in British

Columbia, Canada were enrolled in the study. We compared genotypic sensitivity scores (GSSs) derived from the development of resistance mutations between participants who initiated ART with ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors (PIs) with those who initiated ART with NNRTIs, and determined the effects of these mutations

on remaining active drugs. A total of 1666 participants initiated ART, 818 (49.1%) with NNRTI-based regimens and 848 (50.9%) with boosted PI-based regimens. Among participants who developed resistance mutations, those who initiated Ion Channel Ligand Library mouse NNRTI-based regimens had a lower median GSS than those on boosted PI-based regimens (9.8 vs. 11.0, respectively; P<0.001). Participants on boosted PI-based regimens [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.68; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.25, 6.01], those with ≥95% adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (AOR 1.84; 95% CI 1.16, 2.92) and those with baseline Succinyl-CoA CD4 count >200 cells/μL (AOR 3.44; 95% CI 1.73, 6.84) were more likely to have the maximum number of drug options. The use of NNRTI-based first-line

ART regimens may limit the options for second-line treatment when the number of available drugs is limited. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the use of two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and one nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) as first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) for individuals with HIV-1 infection in resource-limited countries. It further advises reserving protease inhibitor (PI)-based regimens for second-line management [1]. These recommendations have been standardized and simplified to facilitate expansion of ART services [1] and have been widely adopted by many resource-limited countries [2,3]. The WHO does not currently recommend the use of viral load testing for monitoring patients on HIV treatment in resource-limited settings (RLSs) [1,4]. Most patients in these settings do not have access to these tests and clinicians use clinical or immunological criteria to diagnose HIV treatment failure [5]. Consequently, some individuals may remain on incompletely suppressive regimens for long periods of time, which may promote the accumulation of drug resistance mutations [6], before they are diagnosed with treatment failure and switched to a second-line therapy.

41 protein and ECM components Therefore, a whole-cell binding as

41 protein and ECM components. Therefore, a whole-cell binding assay (Fig. 2) was carried out using the wild-type MGAS 6183 strain, the scl1-inactivated isogenic mutant, and the mutant complemented with plasmid pSL230 expressing in trans the Scl1.41 protein (Caswell et al., 2007). All three strains were first transformed with the plasmid pSB027 to generate GFP-expressing cells (Fig. 2a, images at left). The stability of two plasmids pSL230 and pSB027 within the complemented mutant strain was confirmed by isolating total DNA from these cells (Fig. 2d). Fluorescent GAS strains were next tested for binding to ECM-coated glass cover slips (Fig. 2a, images at middle and right columns). More fluorescent wild-type

cells were seen attached to the cover see more slips coated with cFn and Lm, as compared with scl1 mutant GAS. Furthermore, complementation of the scl1 mutant with pSL230 considerably increased cell binding

to both ECMs. Quantitative analysis by counting the numbers of GAS cells in random fields fully supported visual observations (Fig. 2b). The scl1-inactivated mutant bound 30% and 45% less to cFn and Lm, respectively, compared with the wild-type strain. Importantly, the complementation of the mutant for Scl1.41 expression restored the wild-type levels of binding to both cFn and Lm, indicating that this phenotype was due to the lack of Scl1 expression. Residual cFn binding by the Scl1 Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor mutant could be attributed to the presence of the prtf2 gene in this strain (Caswell et al., 2007) encoding an additional Fn-binding protein, F2 (Jaffe et al., 1996). Similarly, the observed binding of the Scl1-deficient mutant to Lm could be attributed to Lbp and Shr expression; however, the M41-type GAS was not included in the studies that characterized these ECM-binding proteins (Terao et al., 2002; Fisher et al., 2008). Because lbp and shr genes are conserved among GAS strains of various M-types, we used PCR to demonstrate

the presence of both genes in Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase M41-type strain MGAS 6183 (Fig. 2c). Altogether, our results demonstrate that Scl1.41 protein is an important surface adhesin that selectively binds to human cFn and Lm and significantly contributes to ECM– GAS interactions. GAS interactions with ECM components have been exhaustively reported in the literature and considerable effort has been directed toward understanding its function in GAS adherence and internalization pertaining to human disease (Cue et al., 2000). The bulk of that work focuses on Fn, although the effect of exogenous cFn on GAS internalization was not specifically investigated. Far less is known about the contribution of Lm to GAS adherence and internalization. Recently, the Lbp of the M1-type strain was shown to facilitate the adherence to and internalization by HEp-2 cells; however, the observed decrease in internalization of the lbp mutant was not statistically significant compared with the wild-type strain (Terao et al., 2002).

Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA)] in all men aged ≥70 years

Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA)] in all men aged ≥70 years and all women aged ≥65 years Consider BMD assessment in men and women ≥50 years old if intermediate to high FRAX score and/or additional risk factors Anti-HBs, anti-hepatitis B virus surface antibody; anti-HBc, anti-hepatitis B virus core total antibody;

BMD, bone mineral density; BMI, body mass index; CVD, cardiovascular disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; FBC, full blood count; HBsAg, hepatitis B virus surface antigen; HCV, hepatitis C virus; IDUs, injecting drug users; LFT, liver function test; MSM, men who have sex with men; STIs, sexually transmitted infections. Within 3 months prior to commencing ART. History Adherence evaluation

Medication history Crizotinib Over-the-counter, recreational drug use Examination Weight, blood pressure, BMI Waist circumference Investigations FBC Creatinine, eGFR, LFTs, glucose, lipid profile, bone profile Urinalysis Urine protein/creatinine ratio CD4 T-cell count HIV-1 plasma viral load HLA B*5701 testing (if considering use of abacavir) Tropism testing [if considering use of chemokine (C-C motif) receptor PARP cancer 5 (CCR5) antagonist – alternatively consider storing plasma sample for future testing] All patients should have their HBV and HCV status reviewed and an assessment undertaken of whether repeat testing is indicated or not Assessment CVD risk Fracture risk assessment in

patients aged ≥50 years ART, antiretroviral therapy; BMI, body mass index; CCR5, chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5; CVD, cardiovascular disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; FBC, full blood count; HBV, hepatitis B virus; HCV, hepatitis C virus; HLA, human leucocyte antigen; LFT, liver function test. Patients should be assessed within 2–4 weeks of commencing ART. Time of assessment within this range will be influenced ZD1839 cost by factors including the regimen selected (see text). History Side effects Adherence Investigations FBC Creatinine, eGFR, LFTs, glucose, bone profile CD4 T-cell count (4 weeks) HIV-1 plasma viral load (4 weeks) ART, antiretroviral therapy; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; FBC, full blood count; LFT, liver function test. Individuals with good adherence and full virological suppression should be assessed 3–6-monthly. More frequent assessment will be required if patients are not fully suppressed or other problems present.

05) The levels of NADH, ATP, and ADP were determined using HPLC

05). The levels of NADH, ATP, and ADP were determined using HPLC in Xcg cells growing in PCD-inducing (LB) and noninducing (RSB) media as shown in Fig. 1. The NADH level was found to be around 40 times higher in PIM-grown cells than in those grown in PNIM. The ATP level in PIM-grown cells was found to be Anti-diabetic Compound Library purchase around 1.6 times higher than that in cells grown in PNIM at a similar cell density. This increase was found to be statistically significant (P≤0.05). Conversely, the ADP levels were found to be lower in PIM and higher in PNIM. H2DCFDA (2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate) is a unique fluorescence precursor that rapidly diffuses inside the

cells, where cellular esterases cleave the acetate moiety, allowing the accumulation of the membrane-impermeable form H2DCF (Blackstone et al., 2004). Further, H2DCF is usually oxidized by peroxides (e.g. H2O2) in the presence of peroxidase, cytochrome c, or Fe2+ to form 2′,7′, dichlorofluorescein (DCF), which can then be visualized using a fluorescent microscope. The assay provides a semiquantitative measure of general intracellular ROS activity. The intensity of fluorescence is proportional to the levels of ROS generated within the cell. When treated with H2DCFDA, Ivacaftor in vitro cells from the PIM culture fluoresced brightly under the fluorescence microscope (Fig. 2a), whereas a negligible number of fluorescent

cells were found in the PNIM culture (Fig. 2b). The presence of free radicals was further investigated using ESR spectroscopy

with a spin trap system containing α-(4-pyridyl 1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone (POBN) and DMSO, which showed the presence of a hydroxyl radical (OH•). In the spin trap system used here, DMSO reacted with OH• and converted it to methyl radical (•CH3). In addition, •CH3 is converted to methoxy radical (•OCH3) in the presence of O2. The •CH3 and •OCH3 then reacted with POBN to form POBN adducts (Nakai et al., 2006). These POBN adducts can be detected using ESR spectroscopy. ESR studies of PCD undergoing Xcg cells confirmed the presence of a hydroxyl radical (Fig. 2c). The triplet of POBN adducts was Anacetrapib observed in Xcg cells undergoing PCD, but was found to be absent under PCD-inhibiting conditions (Fig. 2d). The intracellular concentration of H2O2 was compared using scopoletin assay (Waddell et al., 1994). The amount of H2O2 was measured by horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of the fluorescent dye scopoletin (7-hydroxy-6-methoxycoumarin). The fluorescence intensity was proportional to the amount of H2O2 present in the cell. H2O2 was found to be around 90 times higher in PIM-grown cells than in PNIM-grown cells (Fig. 2e). In the PNIM culture, H2O2 was below the detectable level. The H2O2 concentration in PIM-growing cells steadily increased to 91 mM for 24 h and then remained stable up to 48 h of incubation.

In the context of several education seminars for travel medicine,

In the context of several education seminars for travel medicine, we asked the physicians in the audience whether they are interested in taking part in a questionnaire study about TT. These colleagues were listed and contacted within a few weeks after the particular education seminar. All participating physicians received a description of the study, three standardized questionnaires

(Q1–3), and the classification of travelers’ TR according to the Vienna consensus meeting in 2001 (Table 1).24 The three questionnaires are available from the corresponding author selleck compound on request. Randomly incoming adult travelers seeking medical travel medicine advice prior to

a LHT were asked to participate in the study. If written informed consent was given, Q1 and Q3 were handed out to them together with an envelope for free return consignment for Q3. Q1 asked for age, gender, travel habits, and their individual assessment of the association between travel and TR. These questions had to be answered during the current consultation. Q3 focused on the actually performed TP measures during the particular prophylaxis, experienced side effects or symptoms suspicious for VTE, the means of transport used predominantly during travel, and the period of time seated during the journey. Q3 had to be answered within 4 weeks after the return from the particular journey for which the traveler sought medical advice. The consulted physician had

to answer Q2 asking for assessment of the TR of the traveler, ZD1839 price the predominantly used means of transport during the planned journey, the duration of planned LHT, and the kind of recommendation given to the individual traveler for the particular journey to prevent TT. The study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of the University Erlangen-Nuremberg and supported by the “runners-up award” of the International Society of Travel Medicine (5,000 USD). The participating travelers and physicians received an allowance for a completely answered questionnaire Q1 to Q3 of 5, 10, and 10 Euros, respectively. All questionnaires had to be sent to the study center at the university hospital of filipin Erlangen, Germany. Data were analyzed with statistical software SPSS for Windows, release 15 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA), and the statistical software package SAS (version 9.2, SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA). A descriptive analysis of the important variables was carried out. Associations between the demographic variables age or gender with answers given by the travelers in Q1 were shown in contingency tables and analyzed for significant differences by using the χ2-test or Fisher’s exact test, depending on the cell frequencies.

Overall, (1) low quantities of soil-derived N in combination with

Overall, (1) low quantities of soil-derived N in combination with (2) high contents of easy available N result in rapid plant litter decomposition of L. corniculatus compared with C. epigejos due to (3) high C/N ratios and hence lower microbial degradation of C. epigejos. The application of plant

litter resulted in a significant stimulation (P<0.05) of the total microbial biomass in all treatments, irrespective of the method used (Fig. 2a and b). The highest biomass values were found in the L. corniculatus treatments 4 weeks after litter application. Surprisingly, microbial biomass at later sampling times decreased in L. corniculatus treatments and was not significantly different from that of C. epigejos. The relative content of litter-derived 13C in the microbial biomass followed the same trend. The results of the present study agree with the findings of recent Ku 0059436 studies, which postulated

a stimulation of the microbial biomass as a result of the fast decomposition of attractive and easily available C (Xiao et ALK signaling pathway al., 2007; Poll et al., 2008; Jin et al., 2010). In the L. corniculatus treatment, within 4 weeks, the available plant litter nutrients were incorporated by the soil microbial biomass, whereas higher amounts of available compounds in L. corniculatus can be directly linked to a higher stimulation of the soil microbial biomass due to the increased 13C incorporation. After 12 weeks of incubation,

a decline in microbial biomass in the L. corniculatus treatment indicated a second phase in the litter Sulfite dehydrogenase decomposition process. This process could be characterized by an increasing complexity of the available substrate, causing a shift in the microbial community structure towards slow-growing k-strategists in a community that was initially dominated by fast-growing r-strategists (Poll et al., 2008). In C. epigejos treatments, the slightly increased contents of total PLFA and the corresponding litter-derived 13C proportions at the 4-week sampling time indicated the use of easily available litter compounds; however, the maximum measured was significantly lower compared with L. corniculatus treatments. Overall, these results are in accordance with our hypothesis and show the important role of N in the microbial biomass during the decomposition process. A PCA (Fig. 3) based on individual PLFA mol% (Table S1) indicated that the litter type applied had a clear influence on the structure of microbial litter degraders. After 4 weeks, a small shift along PC1 occurred, mainly as a result of the high proportions of fungi (18:2ω6,9 and 18:3) in both litter treatments. This finding was in accordance with Poll et al. (2008), who found that an increase in fungi was detected between 2 and 4 weeks after litter application, based on ergosterol measurements.