Am J Pathol 2002, 161: 1991–6 PubMed 23 Laakso M, Loman N, Borg

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109: 716–21.PubMed 27. Gould VE, Koukoulis GK, check details Jansson DS, Nagle RB, Franke WW, Moll R: Coexpression patterns of vimentin and glial filament protein with cytokeratins in the normal, hyperplasitc and neoplastic breast. Am J Pathol 1990, 137: 1143–1155.PubMed 28. Heatley M, Whiteside C, Maxwell P, Toner P: Vimentin expression in benign and malignant breast epithelium. J Clin Pathol 1993, 46: 441–445.CrossRefPubMed 29. Seshadri R, Raymond WA, Leong AS, Horsfall DJ, McCaul K: Vimentin expression is not associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer. Int J Cancer 1996, 67: 353–6.CrossRefPubMed 30. Chen MH, Yip GW, Tse GM, Moriya T, Lui PC, Zin ML, Bay BH, Tan PH: Expression of basal keratins and vimentin in breast cancers of young women correlates with adverse GM6001 concentration pathologic parameters. Mod Pathol 2008, 21: 1183–91.CrossRefPubMed 31. Liu ZB, Wu J, Ping B, Feng LQ, Lu JS, Shen KW, Shen ZZ, Shaol ZM: Basal cytokeratin expression in relation to immunohistochemical and clinical characterization in breast cancer patients with triple negative phenotype. Tumori 2009, 95: 53–62.PubMed 32. Rakha EA,

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Raman spectra confirm that Mn2+ was doped into and nanobelts succ

Raman spectra confirm that Mn2+ was doped into and nanobelts successfully. The optical properties are affected strongly by the concentration and spatial distribution of the dopant. Optical micro-cavity also plays an important role to the emission property. Nanobelt shows strong 4 T 1 → 6 A 1 transition emission of mTOR tumor Mn2+. However, the 4 T 1 → 6 A 1 transition emission of Mn2+ in nanobelt splits into many narrow sub-bands due to the formation of integrated multi-Fabry-Pérot cavities, which can couple to produce coherent emission with selected wavelength and cavity mode.

PL mapping confirms that there are several micro-cavities in the single nanobelt. Such doped nanobelts with integrated multi-micro-cavities and modulated emission wavelength can be optimized to fabricate nanophotonic devices and quantum coherent modulators. Authors’ information WZ got his PhD degree in 2010. He is an assistant professor now. RL is an associate professor. DT and BZ are professors. Acknowledgments We thank the NSF of China (term nos.: 51102091, 91121010, 90606001, and 20873039), Research Fund for the Doctoral

Program of Higher Education of China (no.: 20114306120003), Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University (PCSIRT, no.: IRT0964), and Hunan Provincial Natural Science Foundation (11JJ7001) for the financial support. References 1. Liu C, Sun JW, Tang JY, Yang PD: Zn-doped p-type gallium phosphide nanowire photocathodes from a surfactant-free solution synthesis. Nano Lett 2012, 12:5407–5411.CrossRef 2. Nie B, Luo LB, Chen JJ, Hu JG, Wu CY, Wang L, Yu YQ, Zhu ZF, Jie selleckchem JS: Fabrication of p-type ZnSe:Sb nanowires for high-performance ultraviolet light photodetector application. Nanotechnology 2013,

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citrinum and related species are examined using the ITS regions (

citrinum and related species are examined using the ITS regions (intergenic spacer region and 5.8S rDNA gene) and parts of the β-tubulin and calmodulin gene, in combination with extrolite profiles, physiology and macro- and microscopical characters. A large set of isolates, including the type strains of various synonyms and freshly isolated strains are included in this study. Material

and methods Isolates The examined strains included type strains or representatives of species related learn more to P. citrinum. Additional strains were isolated from various substrates, such as soils from different locations, food- and feedstuffs and air. An overview of strains used in this study is presented in Table 1. All strains are maintained in the CBS culture collection. Table 1 Details of isolates included in the morphological and/or molecular examination of this study Species CBS number Substrate and locality P. citrinum 139.45 Ex type of P. citrinum and P. aurifluum, unrecorded source P. VRT752271 mw citrinum 252.55 Ex-type of P.botryosum, herbarium specimen, Recife, Brazil P. citrinum 241.85 IMI 092267; ex type of P. phaeojanthinellum, unrecorded source P. citrinum 122726 NRRL 783; representative of P. sartoryi, unrecorded source P. citrinum 115992 Compost, the Netherlands P. citrinum 122398 Peanut, Indonesia

P. citrinum 122397 Soil, Treasure Island, Florida, USA P. citrinum 865.97 Patient with acute myeloid leukemia, Hong Kong, China P. citrinum 122395 Coconut milk; produced in Indonesia, imported into the Netherlands P. citrinum 122394 Soil, Merang, Malaysia P. citrinum 232.38 Type of P. implicatum; original culture deposited

by Thom (as Thom 4733.73), unknown source, Belgium P. citrinum 117.64 Epoxy softener, the Netherlands P. citrinum 122452 Coffee beans, Thailand; colour mutant P. citrinum 122451 NRRL 2145; colour mutant;unrecorded source P. citrinum 101275 Leaf, Panama P. gorlenkoanum 408.69 Ex-type strain of P. gorlenkoanum; soil, Syria P. gorlenkoanum 411.69 Ex-type strain of P. damascenum; soil, Immune system Syria P. hetheringtonii 122392 Type; soil, Treasure Island, Florida, USA P. hetheringtonii 124286 Soil, Lookout Kuranda, Queensland, Australia P. hetheringtonii DTO 30H7 Soil, Lookout Kuranda, Queensland, Australia P. hetheringtonii 124287 Soil, Lake Easchem, Queensland, Australia P. sizovae 413.69 Neotype of P. sizovae; soil, Syria P. sizovae 122387 Margarine, the Netherlands P. sizovae 139.65 Sea salt, Portugal P. sizovae 122386 Glue, the Netherlands P. sizovae 115968 Cropped soil, Italy P. sizovae 117183 Papaver somniferum, the Netherlands P. sizovae 117184 IBT 22812; salty water in saltern, Slovenia P. steckii 325.59 Ex-type of P. corylophiloides nom. inval.;ex soil Japan P. steckii 789.70 Unrecorded source P. steckii 122391 Potting soil, the Netherlands P. steckii 260.55 Ex-neotype of P. steckii; cotton fabric treated with copper naphthenate, Panama P.

We have evaluated the cleavage and the consequent activation of b

We have evaluated the cleavage and the consequent activation of both caspase 9 and 3 with western blotting using specific antibodies that recognize only the intact forms of the two enzymes. We have found that 5-FU increased the cleavage of caspase 3 in H9c2 cells and the latter was potentiated in presence of LF. These effects were paralleled by a decrease of pro-caspase 9 expression (activation index). On the other hand, DOXO increased the cleavage of caspase 3 and 9 after 24 h from the beginning of treatment but the latter returned to basal level after 48 h (Figure 4). Moreover, the Lazertinib mw different treatments caused no significant changes

of the levels of pro-caspase 3 and 9 in HT29 cell line (Figure 5). Figure 4 Effects of the different treatments on caspase activation

in H9c2 cells. H9c2 cells were treated with 5-FU alone or combined with LF or DOXO alone for 48 h at the concentrations inhibiting the 50% of the proliferation of the cardiocytes as previously indicated in Table 1. Thereafter, the expression of caspase 3, 7 and 9 were evaluated after blotting with specific antibodies that recognise both the full and the cleaved forms of the proteins, as described in “”Materials and Methods”". Expression of the house-keeping protein α-tubulin, used as loading control, was also evaluated. Amine dehydrogenase The experiments were performed at least three different times and the results were always similar. CTR, untreated cells; 5-FU, cells treated Selinexor concentration with 5-FU alone; 5-FU + LF,

cells treated with 5-FU in combination with LF; DOXO, cells treated with DOXO alone. Figure 5 Effects of the different treatments on caspase activation in HT29 cells. HT-29 cells were treated with 5-FU alone or combined with LF or DOXO alone for 48 h at the concentrations inhibiting the 50% of the proliferation of the colon cancer cells as previously indicated in Table 1. Thereafter, the expression of caspase 3 and 7 were evaluated after blotting with specific antibodies that recognise the full form of the proteins, as described in “”Materials and Methods”". Expression of the house-keeping protein α-tubulin, used as loading control, was also evaluated. The experiments were performed at least three different times and the results were always similar. CTR, untreated cells; 5-FU, cells treated with 5-FU alone; 5-FU + LF, cells treated with 5-FU in combination with LF; DOXO, cells treated with DOXO alone. These results were consistent with the data derived from FACS analysis; in fact, the treatment with 5-FU and LF induced a stronger apoptotic effect on cardiocytes cell line if compared with that one recorded in colon adenocarcinoma cell line.

The enhanced exercise performance resulted in a significantly gre

The enhanced exercise performance resulted in a significantly greater increase in both growth P505-15 hormone and insulin concentrations, indicating an augmented anabolic hormone response to this pre-exercise supplement. Although the ergogenic benefits associated with high energy supplements have been demonstrated, the ability to improve subjective feelings of focus, awareness or improve reaction time is not clear. Anecdotal reports suggest that many athletes use high energy supplements prior

to an athletic contest to enhance these specific components. However, studies examining the ability of these pre-exercise energy supplements to improve reaction time and performance are scarce. Many pre-exercise high energy supplements consist of multiple ingredients that are proposed to either increase metabolic rate, enhance exercise performance or both. One such supplement is known as Redline Extreme™. It consists of various herbal and amino acid ingredients which include evodiamine, vinpocetine, yohimbine, hordenine, salbutiamine, beta-alanine, tyrosine,

and tyramine. These herbs and amino acids are suggested to work synergistically to enhance exercise performance. Thus, it is the purpose of this study to examine the effect of a popular, over-the-counter high energy supplement on physical performance and subjective feelings of energy, focus, awareness and fatigue in strength/power MYO10 athletes. Methods Subjects Twelve male strength/power

athletes (mean ± SD; 21.1 ± 1.3 y; 179.8 ± 7.1 cm; 88.6 ± 12.1 kg; 17.6 ± 3.3% body fat) volunteered for this study. Following an explanation of all procedures, risks and benefits each subject gave his written informed consent to participate in this study. The Institutional Review Board of The College of New Jersey approved the research protocol. Subjects with any known metabolic or cardiovascular disease, or psychiatric disorder were excluded. Subjects were also required to have been free of any nutritional supplements or ergogenic aids for the 6 weeks preceding the study, and were asked to refrain from taking any additional supplement during the duration of the study. Study design The study followed a randomized double-blind, crossover design. Subjects reported to the Human Performance Laboratory on two separate days. Each testing session was separated by one week. Subjects were instructed to refrain from consuming any caffeine products on the day of each testing session and from performing any strenuous physical activity for the previous 12 hours. In addition, subjects were instructed not to eat or drink for 3 hours prior to each trial. Following a 10 min resting period subjects were randomly provided with either the supplement (SUP) or the placebo (PL). On the subject’s second visit to the laboratory they were provided with the opposite treatment.

They might also pave the way to identify genes that can be target

They might also pave the way to identify genes that can be targeted to elevate plant resistance or inhibit the growth and reproduction of the pathogen. However, further research is required to elucidate the roles of these genes in the susceptibility/resistance of Mexican

lime tress to “” Ca. Phytoplasma aurantifolia”", and to determine how strategies might be developed to incorporate these genes into molecular breeding programmes. Methods Plant material and inoculation Ten healthy 1-year-old Mexican lime trees grown in the greenhouse were used Vactosertib datasheet in this experiment. Specimens from Mexican lime trees infected with witches’ broom were grafted to healthy trees, and specimens from healthy Mexican lime trees were grafted to other healthy trees. The grafted plants were covered for 1 month with plastic bags to increase humidity and were arranged randomly on the greenhouse bench. They were kept under natural light conditions at a temperature of 25-28°C. The branches infected with witches’ broom were sampled 20 weeks after inoculation and used for RNA extraction. As a control, RNA was extracted from non-grafted healthy plant leaves that has been grown under similar conditions.

Detection of Phytoplasma infection by nested PCR Total Selleckchem PLX4720 DNA was extracted from leaf samples (vascular tissues from leaf veins and petioles) using the method described originally by Daire et al [28] with some modifications [29]. Samples of tissue (1 g) were homogenised at room temperature in 7 ml of cetyl trimethyl ammonium Liothyronine Sodium bromide (CTAB) buffer (3% CTAB, 1 M Tris-HCl pH 8.2, mM EDTA, 1.4 M NaCl), with addition of 0.2% 2-mercaptoethanol, in disposable plastic bags

using a ball-bearing device. Aliquots of 1 ml of homogenate were transferred to Eppendorf tubes and incubated in a water bath at 65°C for 20 min. After extraction with 1 ml of chloroform, nucleic acids were precipitated from the aqueous phase with an equal volume of isopropanol, collected by centrifugation, washed with 70% ethanol, dried, dissolved in 150 ml of TE buffer (10 mM Tris, 1 mM EDTA, pH 7.6) and stored at -20°C until use. The region of the phytoplasma 16 S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR in a total reaction volume of 25 μl in an Applied Biosystems thermal cycler. The first set of PCR primers was P1 (5′-AAGAGTTTGATCCTGGCTCAGGATT-3′) [30] and P7 (5′-CGTCCTTCATCGGCTCTT -3′) [31]. The resulting P1-P7 amplicons were then used as template DNA in a nested-PCR amplification with the universal primer pair for phytoplasmas r16r2/r16F2n [32]. The purified PCR products were cloned into the pGEM-T Easy vector (Promega), and sequenced at the fluorescent automated sequencing facility at Fazabiotech (Tehran, Iran). The phytoplasma strains were classified using iPhyClassifier, as described by Zhao et al [33].

The patterns are shifted vertically for clarity The annealed sam

The patterns are shifted vertically for clarity. The annealed samples show the presence of NiO peaks. The reflexes of Ni are still observed and arise from the incomplete oxidation of the Ni supporting layer. The stars and tick marks denote the Au-Ni alloy and Au, respectively. From the above, it can be seen that metallic Ni still dominate the XRD spectrum, and it appears necessary to estimate the magnitude of oxidation of the nanostructures. For doing this, we make use of the data published in [33] which shows that Ni oxidation follows

a parabolic law in a wide range of temperature. Through extrapolation and taking into account the surface area of the 1D morphology involved (see calculation details in Additional file 1: S1), it can be AZD8931 in vivo shown that sample 2 consists of 60% NiO while sample 3 is completely oxidized. AZD2171 datasheet Using the same procedure, only a small fraction of oxide (0.37%) is calculated for the underlying Ni layer, which explains the dominance of the Ni peaks in the XRD patterns. The morphology

of the nanostructures obtained is shown in Figure 2. The non-annealed sample 1 (Figure 2a, b) shows solely Ni NTs that form via nucleation and growth at the pore walls because of the presence of an extremely thin Au layer (see the experimental section and our previous paper [32]). The judicious deposition time for Ni to obtain NT is 50 s. Figure 2 SEM images of non-annealed (sample 1) and annealed samples (samples 2 and 3). (a) Cross-sectional and (b) top DOCK10 views of the as-prepared Ni NT (non-annealed sample 1 inside AAO template). (c) Wall thickening after 25-min annealing (sample 2). (d) The complete closure of walls yielding NR morphology after 300-min annealing (sample 3). During annealing, the oxide layer nucleates and grows from the exposed inside walls and thickens in the direction of the inner-tube diameter. This suggests an outward diffusion

of the Ni species toward oxygen ions. On the non-exposed outside walls that are confined by the AAO template, no oxide growth is expected. A short annealing time leads to incomplete oxidation of the Ni NTs, resulting in the formation of an oxide scale supported on a remaining Ni layer (see also the XRD results above and Additional file 1: S1). This is the case of sample 2 (Figure 2c; 25-min annealing). For longer annealing time, complete closure of the NT, to finally give the NR morphology as shown in Figure 2d, is achieved because of the volume increase associated with NiO oxide formation. This is the case of sample 3 (300-min annealing). Figure 3 shows the CV curves of the NiO NTs and NiO NRs recorded using a potential window of 0.5 V (between 0.35 and 0.85 V) at various scan rates (5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 mV/s).

When asked about her views on cheating, Student 9 said that obser

When asked about her views on cheating, Student 9 said that observing so many of her friends

talk about their sexual and emotional affairs openly made her realize things like this “just happen.” Intercultural relationships was one of the topics about which seven of the participants said that their attitudes had become more accepting and positive as a result of exposure to these relationships in the host country. For instance, 23 year old Ph.D. Student 10, who is currently dating an American man, mentioned that as a result of living in the US, she sees intercultural dating as more normal and acceptable. She specifically added: Inter-cultural couples that I see look very happy, so, I think that if people are not extremely religious, you can be really happy and even possibly PND-1186 research buy happier than you would be with a Turkish man. Because the person you are with would attribute a lot of your differences to cultural reasons rather than taking them personally. This is especially true for sex and virginity. If I were to ask my male friends, they would say that they would be more accepting of a non-virgin foreigner than a Turkish girl. Echoing similar views, Student 3 said: I thought

that being from different cultural backgrounds would cause a great deal of problems, because you come from different worlds, however living in the United States made me think differently. United States is like the ‘living room’ of the world where so many people of different buy MK-8931 ethnic, religious, and cultural backgrounds come together and mingle.

Living here made me see how a Chinese and an CYTH4 Indian can be in the same room and get along. I couldn’t’ imagine that while I was in Turkey. When talking about divorce, three participants reported that their views on divorce changed significantly. For instance, 27 year old, Ph.D. Student 12, who has a Scottish boyfriend, mentioned that if a woman gets divorced in Turkey, people judge and think less of her, whereas in the United States, it’s “perfectly ok, or at least acceptable and even probable to get a divorce, especially if two people cannot get along.” Although most of the participants’ views on same sex relationships had not changed, those who changed their views attributed this to exposure to these relationships in the host country. For instance, Student 9 said: I was really turned off by the idea of same-sex relationships while I was living in Turkey, I can’t even remember meeting any gay people in Turkey. However, now after meeting many people who are openly gay, I started to think that it is more normal and that it could be anybody.

Infect Immun 2000, 68 (9) : 5377–5384 PubMedCrossRef 21 Stevens

Infect Immun 2000, 68 (9) : 5377–5384.PubMedCrossRef 21. Stevens MP, Wood MW, Taylor LA, Monaghan P, Hawes P, Jones PW, Wallis TS, Galyov EE: An Inv/Mxi-Spa-like type III protein secretion system in Burkholderia pseudomallei modulates intracellular

behaviour of the pathogen. Mol Microbiol 2002, 46 (3) : 649–659.PubMedCrossRef 22. Stevens JM, Ulrich RL, Taylor LA, Wood MW, DeShazer D, Stevens MP, Galyov EE: Actin-Binding Proteins from Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia thailandensis Can Functionally Compensate for the Actin-Based Motility Defect of a Burkholderia pseudomallei bimA Mutant. J Bacteriol 2005, 187 (22) : 7857–7862.PubMedCrossRef 23. Trunck LA, Propst KL, Wuthiekanun V, Tuanyok A, Beckstrom-Sternberg SM, Beckstrom-Sternberg JS, Peacock SJ, Keim P, Dow SW, Schweizer HP: Molecular Basis of Rare Aminoglycoside selleck screening library Susceptibility and Pathogenesis of Burkholderia S3I-201 pseudomallei Clinical Isolates from Thailand. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2009, 3 (9) : e519.PubMedCrossRef

24. Alice AF, Lopez CS, Lowe CA, Ledesma MA, Crosa JH: Genetic and Transcriptional Analysis of the Siderophore Malleobactin Biosynthesis and Transport Genes in the Human Pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei K96243. J Bacteriol 2006, 188 (4) : 1551–1566.PubMedCrossRef 25. Tuanyok A, Kim HS, Nierman WC, Yu Y, Dunbar J, Moore RA, Baker P, Tom M, Ling JML, Woods DE: Genome-wide expression analysis of iron regulation in Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei using DNA microarrays. FEMS Microbiol Lett 2005, 252 (2) : 327–335.PubMedCrossRef 26. Holden MTG, Titball RW, Peacock SJ, Cerdeño-Tárraga

AM, Atkins T, Crossman LC, Pitt T, Churcher C, Mungall K, Bentley SD, et al.: Genomic plasticity of the causative agent of melioidosis, Burkholderia pseudomallei . Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2004, 101 (39) : 14240–14245.PubMedCrossRef 27. Sim BMQ, Chantratita N, Ooi WF, Nandi T, Tewhey R, Wuthiekanun V, Thaipadungpanit J, Tumapa S, Ariyaratne P, Sung W-K, et al.: Genomic acquisition of a capsular polysaccharide virulence cluster by non-pathogenic Burkholderia Bay 11-7085 isolates. Genome Biol 2010, 11 (8) : R89.PubMedCrossRef 28. Atkins T, Prior R, Mack K, Russell P, Nelson M, Prior J, Ellis J, Oyston PCF, Dougan G, Titball RW: Characterisation of an acapsular mutant of Burkholderia pseudomallei identified by signature tagged mutagenesis. J Med Microbiol 2002, 51 (7) : 539–553.PubMed 29. Reckseidler SL, DeShazer D, Sokol PA, Woods DE: Detection of Bacterial Virulence Genes by Subtractive Hybridization: Identification of Capsular Polysaccharide of Burkholderia pseudomallei as a Major Virulence Determinant. Infect Immun 2001, 69 (1) : 34–44.PubMedCrossRef 30. Stevens MP, Stevens JM, Jeng RL, Taylor LA, Wood MW, Hawes P, Monaghan P, Welch MD, Galyov EE: Identification of a bacterial factor required for actin-based motility of Burkholderia pseudomallei . Mol Microbiol 2005, 56 (1) : 40–53.PubMedCrossRef 31.

The decreased expression of Snail by IL-27 was not reversed by in

The decreased expression of Snail by IL-27 was not reversed by inhibition of STAT3 activation. The mechanism driving the differential effect of IL-27 on the two mesenchymal markers A-1155463 solubility dmso (N-cadherin and Vimentin) is unclear as selective inhibition of STAT1 or STAT3 did not elucidate a clear mechanism (Figure 4). Instead, there was suggestion that STAT3 may be involved in N-cadherin expression (Figure 4). Although N-cadherin is considered a mesenchymal marker, its function may be more complex as other studies have shown that repression

of N-cadherin is required for epithelial to mesenchymal transition in some instances such as neural crest migration [34, 38]. However, the overall effect with IL-27 stimulation in our study was promotion of mesenchymal to epithelial transition. The impact of N-cadherin and STAT3 in this process is unclear. Overall, these results suggest that the STAT3 pathway is not critically involved in the IL-27 mediated promotion of epithelial marker expression. In summary, STAT1 appears to be the dominant pathway by which IL-27 promotes the expression of epithelial markers. Of note, the reciprocal increase in P-STAT3 compared to control with inhibition of STAT1 by siRNA seen in Figure 3A

is not demonstrated in Figure 4. These are two different experiments where the duration of IL-27 stimulation and time point for measurement of P-STAT3 expression are entirely different for the two figures. IL-27 inhibition of in vitro cell migration is mediated by a STAT3-independent and STAT1-dependent pathway To further evaluate phenotypic changes associated with IL-27- epithelial marker expression beyond morphologic appearance, we examined in vitro cell migration, a defining feature of the mesenchymal phenotype, by creating a scratch or wound in a confluent monolayer of NSCLC cells and evaluating wound closure as

a result of cell migration. Borders of the Farnesyltransferase wound were marked by solid black lines. We expected IL-27 to inhibit cell migration through STAT1 pathway. Indeed, A549 cells treated with IL-27 showed only poor migration into the border line (lower right, Figure 5A) whereas untreated cells displayed rapid migration after 24 hours of IL-27 treatment (lower left, Figure 5A). Next, we examined whether the inhibitory effect of IL-27 on migration is related to STAT pathways using STAT1 siRNA and STAT3 inhibitor, Stattic. Again, whereas untreated cells demonstrated rapid cell migration toward each other with partial closing of the gap between the solid black lines (upper left, Figure 5B), IL-27 treated cells showed remarkably decreased cell migration (upper right, Figure 5B). Pretreated cells with STAT1 siRNA showed no significant difference in cell migration as compared to untreated cells (lower left, Figure 5B).