Corrected visual acuity from far to near, contrast visual acuity,

Corrected visual acuity from far to near, contrast visual acuity, and glare visual acuity were examined.

RESULTS: The mean corrected intermediate and near visual acuities were significantly better in phakic eyes than in pseudophakic eyes in patients in their 40s and 50s (P <=.0215); corrected distance visual acuity was similar. In the 60s and 70s age groups, there was no statistically significant difference

in corrected visual acuity at any distance. The region of accommodation at which eyes achieved a corrected visual acuity of 20/29 or 20/40 was greater in phakic eyes than in pseudophakic eyes in the GSK3326595 cost 40s and 50s age groups (P <=.0302) but was similar in 60s and 70s age groups. In all age groups, there were no significant differences in photopic or mesopic contrast visual acuity or glare visual acuity.


In patients in their 40s and 50s, the region of accommodation in phakic eyes was greater than in pseudophakic eyes; the region was similar in patients in their 60s and 70s. Because contrast sensitivity with and without glare was similar at all ages, visual function appeared to be comparable in patients 60 years and older.”
“Study Design. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of BBP interactions with BMP.

Objective. To explore bone morphogenetic buy PXD101 protein-binding peptide (BBP)’s mechanism of action, investigate an extended repertoire for BBP applications, and evaluate the usefulness of BBP as a surgical adjuvant when used with recombinant human osteogenic protein-1 (rhOP-1).

Summary of Background Data. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are osteoinductive proteins

that provide a potential alternative to autograft. Their utility is limited by cost, and potential dose-dependent risks, such as local inflammatory reactions and ectopic bone formation. BBP, a cyclized synthetic peptide, avidly binds recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) and has been shown to accelerate and enhance its osteogenic qualities.

Methods. BBP binding with 4 growth factors from the transforming growth factor -beta family were assessed using surface plasmon resonance. The in vivo retention of rhBMP-2 was quantified by comparing the percentage of retained [(125)I]-labeled rhBMP-2 in absorbable collagen sponge implants with or without BBP at 1, 3, and 7 days postimplantation. BLZ945 purchase The adjunctive effect of BBP with rhOP-1-induced bone growth was evaluated by comparing time to fusion and fusion rates in a rodent posterolateral fusion model with 2 different doses of rhOP-1 with or without BBP.

Results. BBP bound all 4 growth factors with an intermediate affinity. The in vivo retention of rhBMP-2 alone ranged from about 40% on day 1 to about 30% on day 7, whereas, the retention of rhBMP-2 in the presence of BBP was about 85% on day 1 and about 55% on day 7. The addition of BBP to rhOP-1 resulted in significantly earlier and greater fusion rates than achieved with rhOP-1 alone.


15 and 2 60%, respectively The accuracy of recovery test ranged

15 and 2.60%, respectively. The accuracy of recovery test ranged from 94.27 to 107.68% with RSD values 0.15-3.61%. The results of validation showed Fer-1 that the HPLC method was stable and very accurate for the quantification of eight marker components in Ojeok-san.”
“Surface-modified planar-anisotropy Fe50Ni50 particle-resin composites have been studied in the microwave frequency range. After surface modification, the eddy current effect is suppressed effectively while the permeability is almost unchanged. High permeability and appropriate permittivity are obtained at the meantime. Simulated microwave

reflection result shows that the matching thickness, corresponding frequency, mu and epsilon is coincident with the quarter wavelength matching condition. The surface-modified Fe50Ni50/resin composites can be attractive candidates for thinner microwave absorbers in L-band (1-2 GHz). (C)

2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3524546]“
“Trichodermanin A, a structurally unique diterpenoid with skeletal carbons arranged compactly in a fused 6-5-6-6 ring system, has been isolated from cultures of Trichoderma atroviride (strain no. S361), an endophytic fungus isolate in Cephalotaxus fortunei. The structure of this compound was elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic methods and confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis.”
“For optimum performance of solar cells featuring a locally contacted rear surface, the metallization fraction as well as the size and distribution of the local contacts are crucial, since Ohmic and recombination losses have to be balanced. S63845 research buy In this work we present a set of equations which enable to calculate this trade off without the need of numerical simulations. Our model combines established analytical and empirical equations to predict the energy conversion efficiency of a locally contacted device. For experimental verification, we fabricate devices from float zone silicon wafers of different resistivity using the laser fired contact technology for forming the local rear contacts. The detailed

selleck compound characterization of test structures enables the determination of important physical parameters, such as the surface recombination velocity at the contacted area and the spreading resistance of the contacts. Our analytical model reproduces the experimental results very well and correctly predicts the optimum contact spacing without the use of free fitting parameters. We use our model to estimate the optimum bulk resistivity for locally contacted devices fabricated from conventional Czochralski-grown silicon material. These calculations use literature values for the stable minority carrier lifetime to account for the bulk recombination caused by the formation of boron-oxygen complexes under carrier injection. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.

We derived a health classification and survey items for the morbi

We derived a health classification and survey items for the morbidities of testing and screening, to be the foundation of a multiattribute utility instrument, the Temporary Utilities Index.

Seventy-six women ranked the importance of attributes of the testing process after breast biopsy. Seven survey items on the testing process were subsequently developed and assessed for clarity by a second group of 19 patients. The items cover attributes of mental and physical well-being before, during, and after testing. A survey panel of 164 subjects accessed online used the items to endorse expected and experienced

effects of colon screening and mammography. They also endorsed items from a selleck chemicals llc colorectal benefits and barriers scale, a risk perception scale, and EQ-5D, to utilize in the analyses of validity of the TUI items.

Based on criteria from the literature and limited psychometric analysis, the items showed evidence of practicality, validity, and a strong association with barriers.

The TUI health classification and survey items show evidence of validity, and may inform economic analysis, once combined Danusertib price with utility weights.”
“AimThe ideal timing for transition to best supportive care (BSC) for ovarian cancer patients is not clear. We retrospectively assessed the survival benefit of continuing chemotherapy and hospice enrollment in late-stage ovarian cancer patients.


and MethodsEligibility criteria included platinum and taxane treatment, clinical progression within 6 months of the last platinum dose, and progression during chemotherapy.

ResultsOf the 55 eligible patients (median overall survival after first becoming refractory

[1st Ref], 96 days), 22 received chemotherapy (Chemo group), two received radiation therapy, and 13 had medical contraindications for subsequent chemotherapy. The remaining 18 patients (BSC group) were compared with the Chemo group. The Chemo and BSC groups had similar background characteristics, except for the rate of consultation with a regional palliative care physician before or within 1 week of 1st Ref (9% vs 50%, respectively). In multivariate analysis, chemotherapy (hazard ratio 0.251, P=0.005) and hospice enrollment (hazard ratio, 0.274, P=0.023) were predictive factors of survival after 1st Ref.

ConclusionsChemotherapy after 1st Ref can be offered and hospice enrollment during the terminal stages is encouraged for recurrent ovarian cancer patients.”
“Permethrin (PM), as a chiral pesticide, has two asymmetric centers, resulting in two pairs of enantiomers. In China, the commercial formulation of PM contains four enantiomers. The enantiomer-specific activity for endocrine disruption in mice remains unclear. In the present study, the four individual PM enantiomers were separated by preparative HPLC. Then, three week-old male ICR mice (after maternal ablactation) were orally administered (+)-cis, (-)-cis, (+)-trans, and (-)-trans-PM separately daily for 3 weeks at doses of 0.

Magnetic resonance imaging pattern recognition studies have estab

Magnetic resonance imaging pattern recognition studies have established characteristic radiologic

phenotypes for this disorder. In some cases, however, genetically confirmed cases do not express these features, and several reports have identified “”atypical”" radiologic findings in Alexander disease patients. Here, the authors report 3 genetically confirmed Alexander disease cases with focal central white matter lesions that, upon longitudinal clinical and radiologic evaluation, appear to reflect an atypical Alexander disease magnetic resonance imaging phenotype and not another pathophysiologic process such as encephalitis, infarction, or neoplasm.”
“Study Design. Biomechanical laboratory research.

Objective. To characterize the structural stiffness of opening and closing wedge osteotomies IPI-549 manufacturer and the independent effect of rod diameter.

Summary of Background Data. Traditionally, C7 opening wedge osteotomy (OWO) has been performed for patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

For patients without ankylosing spondylitis, closing wedge osteotomy (CWO) may be considered for more controlled closure. Biomechanical characteristics of the two osteotomy alternatives have not yet been analyzed.

Methods. Nondestructive pure moment flexion/extension (FE), lateral bending (LB), and axial rotation (AR) tests were conducted to 4.5 Nm on cadaveric specimens (C4-T3). All specimens underwent posterior bilateral screw-rod fixation with 3.5 mm and 4.5 mm Ti rods, whereas half received OWO check details and half received CWO.

Results. Independent of osteotomy type, constructs with 4.5 mm rods exhibited a significant increase in stiffness compared to 3.5 mm rods in all bending modes (P < 0.01). Relative to 3.5 mm rods, 4.5 mm constructs showed an increase in stiffness of 31 +/- 12% for FE, 37 +/- 39% for LB, and 31 +/- 11% for AR. At the osteotomy site, there was a 43 +/- 23% increase in FE stiffness,

45 +/- 36% in LB, and 41 +/- 17% in AR. Independent of rod diameter, CWO was significantly stiffer than OWO (42% for the construct and 56% across the osteotomy) in FE bending only (P < 0.05).

Conclusion. The surgeon can expect a similar increase in stiffness in switching from 3.5 mm to 4.5 mm rod independent of osteotomy type. The increased stiffness of CWOs has an anatomic basis. OWOs disrupt the anterior longitudinal ligament (ALL) and leave a significant anterior gap whereas CWOs create a wedge through the vertebral body and leave the ALL and the discs above and below the osteotomy intact. The closure in CWOs leaves no anterior gap providing greater axial loading stability. This greater bone on bone contact in CWOs is likely a significant reason for the anterior stiffness and may provide greater fusion rates in the nonankylosing spondylitis patient population.”
“Objective. Ameloblastomas are benign epithelial tumors of odontogenic origin, with a high recurrence rate and local aggressiveness.

14 mol %) were obtained by mixing both co-monomers and performing

14 mol %) were obtained by mixing both co-monomers and performing the reaction at high temperature (80 degrees C). This strategy allowed the control of the V-4 incorporation into the copolymer structure, giving the opportunity of synthesizing model vinyl-siloxane polymers. The gamma radiation of these materials showed that lower doses are needed to achieve the same gel content as in a model poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). In such a sense, these results constitute one of

the first reports regarding the effect of gamma radiation on vinyl-containing silicon polymers, and may be of fundamental importance if a biomedical cross-linked rubber-type PDMS is needed at earlier doses of sterilization. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“The aim of the present study is to compare different analytical methods for singlet oxygen MEK162 solubility dmso and to discuss this website an appropriate way to evaluate the yield of singlet oxygen photogenerated from photosensitizers. Singlet oxygen photogenerated from rose bengal was evaluated by electron spin resonance analysis using sterically hindered amines, spectrophotometric analysis of 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran oxidation, and analysis of fluorescent

probe (Singlet Oxygen Sensor Green (R)). All of the analytical methods could evaluate the relative yield of singlet oxygen. The sensitivity of the analytical methods was 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran < electron spin resonance < Singlet Oxygen Sensor Green (R). However, Singlet Oxygen Sensor Green (R) could be

used only when the concentration of rose bengal was very low (<1 mu M). In addition, since the absorption spectra of 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran is considerably changed by irradiation of 405 nm laser, photosensitizers which are excited by light with a wavelength of around 400 nm such as hematoporphyrin cannot be used in the 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran oxidation method. On the other hand, electron spin resonance analysis using GSK2399872A inhibitor a sterically hindered amine, especially 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidinol and 2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-3-pyrroline-3-carboxamide, had proper sensitivity and wide detectable range for the yield of photogenerated singlet oxygen. Therefore, in photodynamic therapy, it is suggested that the relative yield of singlet oxygen generated by various photosensitizers can be evaluated properly by electron spin resonance analysis.”
“The Warburg effect – a classical hallmark of cancer metabolism – is a counter-intuitive phenomenon in which rapidly proliferating cancer cells resort to inefficient ATP production via glycolysis leading to lactate secretion, instead of relying primarily on more efficient energy production through mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, as most normal cells do. The causes for the Warburg effect have remained a subject of considerable controversy since its discovery over 80 years ago, with several competing hypotheses.

Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinic

Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical value of c-Ski and SnoN expression in primary Cutaneous melanoma.

Methods: We evaluated c-Ski and SnoN expression by immunohistochemical staining in 120 primary melanomas. Possible associations between c-Ski and SnoN staining patterns and clinicopathological parameters were analyzed.

Results: Nuclear c-Ski expression was significantly associated with thicker and ulcerated tumours. The percentage of SnoN positivity was higher in ulcerated tumours and in the sentinel node positive group.

Conclusion: These results suggest that c-Ski and SnoN, mediators in TGF-beta resistance, might be implicated in melanoma growth and progression.

(c) 2008 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights selleck chemicals llc reserved.”
“Starch noodles were produced using a medium grain rice starch in the presence of various gums, and physical properties of the noodles were compared with sweet potato starch noodle. Pasting viscosity of the rice starch was lower than that of sweet potato starch (830 vs. 1,618 cp as peak viscosity). The peak viscosity, however, was increased by the addition of gums (0.1% based on dispersion), and especially xanthan was the most effective in increasing the peak viscosity (1,478 cp). The cooking loss for the rice starch noodles (1.5 mg/mL),

greater than that for the sweet potato starch noodle (0.2 mg/mL), was effectively reduced to 0.8 and 0.(mg/mL, respectively, by the addition of locust bean gum (LBG) and curdlan. The addition of LBG or gellen gum also increased the hardness of the rice noodles. Aging (extended retrogradation) the noodles was effective in reducing the cooking loss and improving the textural properties of the rice starch noodles. The combination of the gum addition (like LBG) and aging of the rice starch noodle might be useful for utilizing rice starch as a substitute for sweet potato starch in Asian noodle preparation.”
“National legislations represent one of the main factors influencing access to assisted reproduction treatment. The Italian situation in the last decade is an

example of how the treatment of patients for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) was more FDA approved Drug Library research buy dependent on regulators than on medical choices. This report analysed how the changes in Italian regulation affected the number of PGD referrals to this study centre, as well as their decision to opt for cross-border reproductive care (CBRC). The analysis showed that during the period in which PGD was actually not performed because of the restriction imposed by the Italian law on IVF (from 24 February 2004 to 7 May 2009) there was a significant decrease in the number of referrals asking for PGD (2.5% of total referrals) compared with the previous years (3.3%; P < 0.025) and following years when PGD was legalized (5.1%; P < 0.001).

It was noted that IFN gamma, IL-10 and TNF alpha had peaked on we

It was noted that IFN gamma, IL-10 and TNF alpha had peaked on week three post-vaccination while the remaining cytokines peaked on the second week and decreased by the third week. The counteraction between IFN gamma

and IL-4 was noted as well as the possible suppressive action of IL-10 to that of IL-2 and IL-12, which is a common phenomenon between Th1 and Th2 cytokines. Synergy between TNFa and IL-6 was also observed. These findings suggest that within the immune system of water buffalo there is a dynamic cell-mediated and humoral interaction in response to immunogen. This assessment of the cytokine expressions is vital for the study DMH1 of water buffalo disease progression and concurring protective immune responses. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objectives: Severe throat pain can result from tonsillectomy and last up to 10 days in children.

Codeine elixir has long been used for pain relief, but has recently been banned by the Food and Drug Administration due to a recently recognized MLN4924 cell line risk of death. We explored acupuncture as an alternative means of pain relief for children and adolescents after tonsillectomy.

Methods: This was a retrospective review of children and adolescents who underwent tonsillectomy over a three-month period. No narcotics were prescribed after surgery. Patients who wanted help with pain relief were offered acupuncture. Perceived pain level was assessed before and after the acupuncture treatment. Following

the 10-day recovery for tonsillectomy, patients or their parents were queried as to how long the pain relief from acupuncture intervention was perceived to last.

Results: 56 children and adolescents underwent tonsillectomy in the three-month window selected for the retrospective review. 31 of these patients (ranging from 2 to 17 years in age) received an acupuncture intervention for postoperative pain. The mean reported pain level before acupuncture was 5.52 (SD = 2.28) out of 10. This fell to 1.92 (SD = 2.43) after acupuncture. Statistical analysis supported the find more general conclusion that pain reports decline after acupuncture in the sampled population. However, the limitations of the methodology and the sample suggest that this generalization should be treated as preliminary. 17 patients or their parents provided a post-recovery report for how long they believed the acupuncture intervention lasted. The mean duration of perceived acupuncture benefit was 61.24 h, though the standard deviation was large (64.58 h) with about 30% of patients reporting less than three hours of benefit and about 30% reporting more than 60 h. No adverse effects were observed as a result of acupuncture treatments.

Conclusions: The data tentatively suggest that acupuncture decreases perceived pain in children and adolescents after tonsillectomy.

Methods: The clinical charts were reviewed of all children with a

Methods: The clinical charts were reviewed of all children with a Treacher Collins syndrome diagnosis receiving a Baha in the “”Bambino Gesu”" Children’s Hospital from January 1995 to January 2010. Data were collected concerning patients’ anagraphics and medical history, comorbidities,

surgical technique, complications and functional outcome.

Results: 23 Treacher Collins children were included. A two-stage surgery was adopted in 51% (n = 12) cases, while a one-stage approach was chosen in 49% (n = 11). 2 children underwent 1st stage surgery as they were younger than 5. There were neither cases of osseointegration failure, nor cases of traumatic implant loss. Overall, the local see more complication rate was not different in the one-stage and in the two-stage group. The functional gain was significantly better with the Baha than with the conventional bone-conduction

hearing aids (p < 0.0002). There was no difference in terms of functional outcome between the 7 patients receiving Baha at an age younger than 5 years and the rest (p = 0.23).

Conclusions: Baha can provide effective auditory rehabilitation for children with Treacher Collins syndrome, as long as it is performed in a tertiary care center where a multidisciplinary approach to the frequent comorbidities is possible. The main challenge of Baha surgery in this population is the poor or irregular thickness of NVP-LDE225 research buy the patient’s calvarial bone, which often makes it necessary to drill additional holes, to place the fixture in contact with the dura or to use materials for bone augmentation. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose of review

Review of the management decisions that must be made by the endocrinologist during the use of radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy of hyperthyroidism and differentiated thyroid cancer.

Recent findings

Since the 1940s radioactive I-131 selleck (RAI) therapy has been a major component of the treatment of hyperthyroidism and differentiated thyroid cancer. RAI is

the most common definitive treatment of hyperthyroidism. Pretherapy decisions including use of antithyroid medication and low-iodine diet will be discussed with the relevant supportive literature. The method of semi-quantitative calculation used for RAI treatment of hyperthyroidism will be described. Evidence-based guideline for the management of differentiated thyroid cancer by the American Thyroid Association, new drug development and recent randomized controlled trials have changed current practice of how RAI is used for remnant ablation and adjuvant therapy of differentiated thyroid cancer.


RAI is a common tool for the endocrinologist in the management of hyperthyroidism and differentiated thyroid cancer.

03) and septal Tei index (p = 0 03) as the best predictive model

03) and septal Tei index (p = 0.03) as the best predictive model (R (2) = 0.36). The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for septal Tei index was 0.84 (95 % confidence interval = 0.64-0.96,), and it was comparable with the ROC curve for shortening fraction, p = 0.76. Optimal values of sensitivity (100 %) and specificity (60 %) were obtained with septal Tei index values > selleck screening library 0.51. The TDI septal Tei index is an indicator of disease severity in pediatric heart failure patients and offers potential

advantages compared with standard echocardiographic measures of left-ventricular ejection.”
“This study aimed to determine the effect of baicalin on insulin resistance, glucose absorption, and blood lipids in type 2 diabetic rat model. Diabetic rats were treated with baicalin (40,80 mg/kg) for 40 days. The results showed that diabetic rats treated with baicalin resulted in a significant decrease in the concentration of plasma triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, improved the body weight. Furthermore, baicalin markedly decreased blood glucose level in the diabetic rats. The levels of plasma insulin and resistin exhibited

significantly lower in the diabetic rats treated with baicalin than those of the model group. These findings suggest that baicalin can improve adipose metabolic disturbance in the experimental selleck inhibitor type 2 diabetic rats, can effectively ameliorate insulin resistance and plasma glucose transport by decreasing

the levels of plasma resistin.”
“Although polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase (GST) have been associated with the risk of bladder cancer (BC), few reports provide information about the development of BC. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of homozygous glutathione S-transferase-mu (GSTM1) and glutathione S-transferase-phi (GSTT1) deletions as prognostic markers in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). A total of 241 patients Ubiquitin inhibitor with primary NMIBC were enrolled in this study. GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms were analyzed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using blood genomic DNA. The results were compared with clinicopathological parameters. The prognostic significance of the GSTs was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier and multivariate Cox regression model. A statistically significant association between genotype and histopathological parameter was not observed. The patients with the GSTT1-positive genotype had significantly reduced recurrence-and progression-free survival than those with the GSTT1-null genotype (log-rank test, p < 0.05, respectively). Recurrence-and progression-free survival were not related to the GSTM1 genotypes. In multivariate regression analysis, the GSTT1-positive genotype was the independent predictor for recurrence [hazard ratio (HR), 1.631; p = 0.043] and progression (HR, 3.418; p = 0.006). These results suggested that the GSTT1 genotype could be a useful prognostic marker for recurrence and progression in NMIBC.

Interestingly, the precise expression level of Oct4 determines th

Interestingly, the precise expression level of Oct4 determines the fate of embryonic stem cells. Therefore, to control the expression of Oct4 precisely, a variety of regulators function at multiple levels, including transcription, translation of mRNA and post-translational modification. Additionally, in cooperation with Sox2, Nanog and other members of the core transcriptional regulatory circuitry, Oct4 activates both protein-coding genes and noncoding RNAs necessary for pluripotency.

Simultaneously, in association with transcriptional repressive complexes, Oct4 represses another set of targets involved in developmental processes. Importantly, Oct4 can re-establish pluripotency in somatic cells, and proper reprogramming of Oct4 expression is indispensable for deriving genuine induced pluripotent stem cell lines. In the past several years, genome-wide identification of Oct4 target genes and Oct4-centered GW786034 datasheet protein interactomes has been reported, indicating that Oct4 exerts tight control over pluripotency

regulator expression and protects embryonic stem cells in an undifferentiated state. Nevertheless, further investigation is required to fully elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms through which Oct4 maintains and reinitiates pluripotency. Systemic and dynamic exploration of the protein complexes and target genes associated with Oct4 will help to elucidate the role of Oct4 more comprehensively.”

(GSH) and ascorbate Vactosertib cost (ASC) are important antioxidants that are involved in stress defence and cell proliferation of meristematic root cells. In principle, synthesis of ASC and GSH in the roots as well as ASC and GSH transport from the shoot to the roots by phloem mass flow is possible. However, it is not yet known whether the ASC and/or the GSH level in roots depends on the supply from the shoot. This was analysed by feeding mature leaves with [C-14]ASC or [S-35]GSH and subsequent detection of the radiolabel in different root Birinapant fractions. Quantitative dependency of root ASC and GSH on shoot-derived ASC and GSH was investigated with poplar (Populus tremulaxP. alba) trees interrupted in phloem transport. [S-35]GSH is transported from mature leaves to the root tips, but is withdrawn from the phloem along the entire transport path. When phloem transport was interrupted, the GSH content in root tips halved within 3 d. [C-14]ASC is also transported from mature leaves to the root tips but, in contrast to GSH, ASC is not removed from the phloem along the transport path. Accordingly, ASC accumulates in root tips. Interruption of phloem transport disturbed the level and the ASC redox state within the entire root system. Diminished total ASC levels were attributed mainly to a decline of dehydroascorbate (DHA).