The goal of the present meta-analysis was to investigate postoper

The goal of the present meta-analysis was to investigate postoperative analgesic properties of ketamine in pediatric patients.

Material and methods:

A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify clinical trials that used ketamine as a perioperative analgesic compound in children and infants. Outcomes measured were postoperative analgesic consumption, pain intensity and duration of sensory block (when ketamine was used by caudal route) during HKI 272 the postoperative care unit (PACU) stay and the early postoperative period (6-24 h after leaving the operative room). The data from each

trial were combined to calculate the pooled odds ratios or standard mean differences and their 95% confidence intervals.


Thirty-five randomized, blinded controlled studies were retrieved from the literature. Systemic selleck inhibitor ketamine was effective in decreasing PACU pain intensity and analgesic

requirement but failed to influence early (6-24 h) pain intensity and analgesic requirement. Ketamine administered locally during tonsillectomy, decreased PACU and early (6-24 h) pain intensity and PACU analgesic requirements. Used as an adjuvant for caudal analgesia, ketamine increased the duration of sensory block and PACU analgesic requirement without impacting PACU pain intensity. Ketamine failed to exhibit a postoperative opioid-sparing effect.


This meta-analysis found that administration of ketamine was associated with decreased PACU postoperative pain intensity and nonopioid analgesic requirement. However, ketamine

failed to exhibit a postoperative opioid-sparing effect.”
“The phase stability, nonstoichiometry, point defects, and magnetoresistance (MR) of polycrystalline Sr2FeMoO6-delta (SFMO) were studied. Thermogravimety Silmitasertib mw at 1200 degrees C in combination with x-ray diffraction shows that single-phase SFMO exists between -10.2 <= log p(O2) <= -13.7 at 1200 degrees C. At lower oxygen partial pressure mass loss signals reductive decomposition; at higher p(O2) a mass gain indicates oxidative decomposition into SrMoO4 and SrFeO3-x. The nonstoichiometry delta at 1200 degrees C was measured as function of p(O2) and oxygen vacancies were found to represent majority defects. The vacancy concentration increases with decreasing p(O2); a maximum nonstoichiometry of delta = 0.086 is observed close to the lower phase boundary. Samples with different delta were prepared at 1200 degrees C and various p(O2). The variation of structural parameters, magnetization, and MR is discussed in relation to oxygen nonstoichiometry delta. Maximum MR=6.5% at 298 K and 1 T is observed for samples with large delta. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3065969]“
“Purpose of review

The spondyloarthropathies (SpAs) are a group of interrelated inflammatory disorders with overlapping clinical features.

This provides further

This provides further this website evidence for the feedback regulation of flavonoid gene expression having been previously reported for the prohexadione-Ca inhibited apple plants. (C) 2011 Elsevier Masson

SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Background: The role of viruses in pediatric pneumonia remains poorly studied in sub-Saharan Africa, where pneumonia-associated mortality is high.

Methods: During a 1-year hospital-based surveillance, a nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) was collected from children aged <5 years admitted to hospital in rural Mozambique with clinically severe pneumonia. Identification of 12 respiratory viruses was performed by polymerase chain reactions (PCR). Study children were also tested for invasive bacterial infection (IBI), Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia, and HIV.

Results: Almost half (394/807) of the children hospitalized with clinically severe pneumonia had at least one respiratory virus detected. A total of 475 viruses were detected among these 394 children, the most prevalent ones were rhinovirus (41%), adenovirus (21%), and respiratory syncytial virus (11%). Eleven percent of viral infected

children had concomitant IBI, 15% had malaria parasites, and 25% had HIV coinfection. Viral infection was 5.5 to 16 times more prevalent among HIV-infected selleck kinase inhibitor children and incidence rate ratios varied according to virus. Inhospital mortality of viral cases was 9%, being highest among cases with IBI coinfection GSK1904529A molecular weight (odds ratio = 7) or HIV infection (odds ratio = 7).

Conclusions: Study results highlight the high prevalence of respiratory viruses among hospitalized pneumonia cases in Mozambique. HIV infection is an important contributor to the high burden of disease and associated mortality of viral pneumonia. IBI also contributes to

a worse prognosis of viral cases. Strategies to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV as well as introduction of Hib and pneumococcal vaccines could have a substantial impact on reduction of viral pneumonia and associated mortality among children in rural Africa.”
“Tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs) are potential successors of metal-oxide-semiconductor FETs because they promise superior input characteristics. However, the output characteristics of TFETs are poorly understood, and sometimes a superlinear onset, undesirable for circuit design, is observed. We present the first analytical model to include the impact of the drain voltage on the TFET performance. The model is developed for both a pure line-tunneling TFET and a pure point-tunneling TFET. Good agreement is observed with device simulations, especially for line-tunneling TFETs. Our model highlights and explains the superlinear onset of the output characteristics, thereby enabling an improved analysis of experimental data. Increasing the source doping level and switching to a smaller bandgap material can remove the undesired onset.

001) expression significantly correlated with decreased overall s

001) expression significantly correlated with decreased overall survival in both SC/ASC and AC patients. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that positive ALDH1A3 expression or negative GPX3 expression was an independent poor-prognostic predictor

in both SC/ASC and AC patients. Conclusions. Our study suggested that positive ALDH1A3 and negative GPX3 expressions are closely associated with clinical pathological behaviors and poor prognosis of gallbladder cancer.”
“The synthesis of polymer-grafted natural rubbers (NRs) was considered through photopolymerization of vinyl monomers initiated from N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate groups previously introduced onto cis 1,4-polyisoprene units of NR chains. MEK inhibitor The development of the procedure was made with methyl methacrylate (NMA) as monomer. First, initiation of MMA photopolymerization Rigosertib was tested using a model molecule of the

N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate-functionalized 1,4-polyisoprene unit to verify the feasibility of the procedure considered. Then, MMA polymerization was successfully initiated from N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate-functionalized NR backbone used as macroinitiator, and the conditions of grafting were optimized. It was shown that MMA grafting could occur either in monomer medium, in solution in toluene, and in latex medium, and that the quantities of homopolymer formed were still low. Thereafter, grafting studies were performed with other vinyl monomers (styrene, methacrylonitrile, acrylamide, acrylic acid) showing that grafting efficiency depends essentially on the nature of the monomer. The method developed here was shown particularly well adapted for the synthesis of polymer-grafted NR with monomers of low polarity. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 114: 2149-2160,2009″
“This article contains a review of the main developments reported during 2009 in either publications or presentations on the pathophysiology, secondary prevention, prognosis or

treatment of acute coronary syndrome, with or without ST-segment elevation.”
“Objectives. The study was designed to evaluate associations LXH254 mw between symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), inflammation, and superoxide anion (O-2(center dot-)) with endothelial function and to determine their potential for screening of endothelial dysfunction in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and renal transplant (RT) recipients. Materials and Methods. We included 64 CKD and 52 RT patients. Patients were stratified according to brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Results. Logistic regression analysis showed that high SDMA and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were associated with impaired FMD in CKD and RT patients, after adjustment for glomerular filtration rate. The ability of inflammation, SDMA, and O-2(center dot-) to detect impaired FMD was investigated by receiving operative characteristic analysis. Hs-CRP (area under the curves (AUC) = 0.754, P < 0.001), IL-6 (AUC = 0.699, P = 0.002), and SDMA (AUC = 0.

Consequently, potentially valuable spatial information is lost an

Consequently, potentially valuable spatial information is lost and the lower abundance cellular components that are expressed only in certain cell types can be diluted below the level of detection. In this study, laser microdissection (LMD) was used to isolate epidermal and subepidermal cells from green, expanding Citrus clementina fruit and their transcriptomes were compared using a 20k citrus cDNA microarray and quantitative real-time PCR. The results show striking differences in gene expression NU7441 purchase profiles between the two cell types, revealing specific metabolic

pathways that can be related to their respective organelle composition and cell wall specialization. Microscopy provided additional evidence of tissue specialization that could be associated with the transcript profiles with distinct differences in organelle and metabolite accumulation. Subepidermis predominant genes are primarily see more involved in photosynthesis- and energy-related processes, as well as cell wall biosynthesis and restructuring. By contrast,

the most epidermis predominant genes are related to the biosynthesis of the cuticle, flavonoids, and defence responses. Furthermore, the epidermis transcript profile showed a high proportion of genes with no known function, supporting

the original hypothesis that analysis at the tissue/cell specific levels can promote gene discovery and lead to a better understanding of the specialized contribution of each tissue to fruit physiology.”
“Introduction and hypothesis The objective of this study was to compare the Manchester Fothergill (MF) procedure with vaginal hysterectomy (VH) as surgical treatment of uterine descent.

Methods Consecutive patients who underwent MF were matched for prolapse grade, age and parity NCT-501 chemical structure to consecutive patients treated with VH. Evaluated outcomes included functional outcome, morbidity, recurrence of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and sexual function. Follow-up was performed using validated questionnaires.

Results We included 196 patients (98 patients per group). The response rate after a follow-up of 4-9 years was 80%. We found no differences in functional outcome and recurrence rates of POP between groups. Blood loss was significantly less and operating time was significantly shorter in the MF group. However, incomplete emptying of the bladder was more common in the MF group.

Conclusions The MF procedure is equally effective to the VH and should be considered as a surgical option that allows preservation of the uterus.

Moreover, the qualitative conclusions in those studies are favora

Moreover, the qualitative conclusions in those studies are favorable to the use of the sponsored prophylactie agent.”
“Purpose of reviewIn contrast to the disease remission enjoyed by a majority of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients during pregnancy, the immediate postpartum period is generally characterized by flare. Managing symptoms during this time is challenging because the potential transfer of medication into the breast milk of nursing mothers may limit which antirheumatic drugs can be safely used. The benefits of breastfeeding are significant, however, so an understanding of how to adjust medications to permit lactation and nursing is important for rheumatologists.Recent

GSK J4 in vivo findingsAlthough nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in general are passed into milk in low doses, shorter acting NSAIDs are preferred, with caution for premature infants. Prednisone can be taken by nursing mothers, although when used at doses higher than 20mg/day an interval of 4h after dosing and prior to breastfeeding is recommended. Hydroxychloroquine and sulfasalazine are compatible with nursing.

Cyclosporine is generally allowed in lactating women, although a single infant was reported to develop therapeutic drug levels. Azathioprine (AZA) and tissue necrosis factor–inhibitors have little to no transfer into breast milk, with negligible levels measured in infant sera, and thus may be considered for use in lactating mothers. Methotrexate and leflunomide should not be used. Other biological RA medications have not been evaluated, and are, therefore, best avoided by breastfeeding

patients.SummaryMany AZD6738 but not all RA medications may be used during lactation with low risk to the nursing infant; this review summarizes the available data for commonly used medications in order to help guide therapy during Lapatinib in vivo the postpartum period.”
“We report the dependence of electronic and optical properties on the Ag thickness in transparent conductive indium tin oxide (ITO)-Ag-ITO (IMI) multilayer films deposited on polyethylene naphthalate flexible substrate by sputtering at room temperature. The electrical properties (such as carrier concentration, mobility, and resistivity) changed significantly with incorporation of Ag between the ITO layers. Comparison of sheet resistance of the IMI multilayers and the calculated sheet resistance of the Ag midlayer indicates that most of the conduction is through the Ag film. The critical thickness of Ag to form a continuous conducting layer is found to be 8 nm using electrical and optical analysis. A conduction mechanism is proposed to elucidate the mobility variation with increased Ag thickness. Carrier transport is limited by either interface scattering or grain-boundary scattering depending on the thickness of the Ag midlayer. Interface scattering is dominant for thinner (5.5-7 nm) Ag and grain-boundary scattering is dominant for thicker (8-10.

The potential of the Dy3+: YAG transparent ceramics for yellow or

The potential of the Dy3+: YAG transparent ceramics for yellow or blue laser emission is discussed. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3656718]“
“We studied the kinetics and mechanism of the charge-transfer polymerization of methyl BAY 57-1293 molecular weight methacrylate (MMA) initiated with n-butyl amine (BA) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) catalyzed by palladium dichloride (PdCl2 or PdII) in a dimethyl sulfoxide medium by using a dilatometric technique at 60 degrees

C. The rate of polymerization (Rp) was a function of [MMA], [BA], [CCl4], and [PdII]. The kinetic data indicated a mechanism involving the possible participation of the charge-transfer complex formed between the BAPdII complex and CCl4 or monomer in the polymerization of MMA. In the absence of either CCl4 or BA, no polymerization of MMA was observed under these experimental conditions. Rp was inhibited by hydroquinone; this suggested a free-radical initiation. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“Background: Several techniques for liver resection have been developed. We compared radiofrequency-assisted (RF) and clamp-crush learn more (CC) liver resection (LR) in terms of blood loss,

operating time and short-term outcomes in primary and metastatic tumour resection.

Methods: From 2002 to 2007, 196 consecutive patients with primary or metastatic hepatic tumours underwent RF-LR (n = 109; group 1) or CC-LR (n = 87; group 2) in our unit. Primary endpoints were intraoperative blood loss (and blood transfusion requirements) and total operative time. Secondary endpoints included postoperative complications, mortality and intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stay. Data were collected retrospectively on all patients with primary or secondary liver lesions.

Results: Blood loss was similar (P = 0.09) between the two groups of patients with the exception of high MELD score

(> 9) cirrhotic patients, in whom blood loss was lower when RF-LR was used (P < 0.001). Total operative time and transection time were shorter in the CC-LR group (P = 0.04 and P = 0.01, respectively), except for high MELD score (> 9) cirrhotic patients, in whom total operation and transection times were shorter when RF-LR was used (P = 0.04). Rates of bile leak and abdominal abscess formation were higher GS-9973 cost after RF-LR (P = 0.04 for both).

Conclusions: Clamp-crush LR is reliable and results in the same amount of blood loss and a shorter operating time compared with RF-LR. Radiofrequency-assisted LR is a unique, simple and safe method of resection, which may be indicated in cirrhotic patients with high MELD scores.”
“Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic Gram-negative pathogen with increasing relevance in a variety of hospital-acquired infections especially among intensive care unit patients. Resistance to antimicrobial agents is the main reason for A. baumannii spread. A.

Preliminary results from ongoing Phase III

Preliminary results from ongoing Phase III PKC412 mouse clinical studies have recently reported that Contrave is both safe and efficacious

as a pharmacological treatment for obesity, providing a potentially novel therapeutic strategy for its treatment. However, further rigorous clinical testing in nonselected patient populations will be required before this novel treatment strategy enters clinical use.”
“Carrier relaxation in GaN nanowires, grown by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition, via direct nitridation of Ga with NH3 at 950 degrees C has been investigated in detail. Differential absorption measurements reveal a large number of defect states located within the band gap. The relaxation dynamics

of the photogenerated carriers suggest three distinct regions of energy states below the band edge identified as shallow donor states, midgap states, and deep acceptor states. Measurements suggest that Auger recombination is not a contributing factor in carrier relaxation even at the highest fluence (similar to 1 mJ/cm(2)) used in this work for carriers located within the conduction band. On the contrary, Auger recombination has been observed when probing the shallow donor states for fluences above 40 mu J/cm(2). Measurements at the lowest fluence reveal a biexponential relaxation for the donor states with the AR-13324 fast component (similar to 50 ps) corresponding to the relaxation of carriers into the midgap states and selleckchem the slow component of 0.65 ns associated with the relaxation into the deep acceptor states. Measurements reveal free-carrier absorption contribution from the deep acceptor states to

the U-valley with an observed threshold limit of 3.5 eV suggesting the U-valley is located approximately 4.7 eV from the valence band.”
“The application of external biophysical signals is one approach to tissue engineering that is explored less often than more traditional additions of exogenous biochemical and chemical factors to direct cell and tissue outcomes. The study of bioelectromagnetism and the field of electrotherapeutics have evolved over the years, and we review biocompatible electric stimulation devices and their successful application to tissue growth. Specifically, information on capacitively coupled alternating current, inductively coupled alternating current, and direct current devices is described. Cell and tissue responses from the application of these devices, including two- and three-dimensional in vitro studies and in vivo studies, are reviewed with regard to cell proliferation, adhesion, differentiation, morphology, and migration and tissue function. The current understanding of cellular mechanisms related to electric stimulation is detailed.

(C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved “
“The Hall resis

(C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The Hall resistance of small Hall sensors and its nonlinear dependence on magnetic field B were investigated at the temperature of 4.2 K. The sensors were four-terminal crosses fabricated by etching AlGaAs/InGaAs/GaAs delta-doped heterostructures. While large sensors exhibit

good linearity of the Hall voltage on magnetic field, in sensors smaller than 5 mu m we detected pronounced nonlinearities for magnetic fields between 0 and 2 T. We attribute the latter to ballistic corrections this website to the classical Hall effect, and we model the Hall and the bend resistances at low temperature using Monte Carlo simulation. We also carried out temperature studies of the Hall sensors. We show that the nonlinearities persist up to room temperature. The effect of nonlinearities on the performance of Hall sensors is discussed. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3103303]“
“The World Health Organization (WHO) Air Quality Guidelines (AQG) were launched in 2006, but gaps remain in evidence on health impacts and relationships between short-term and annual AQG needed for health protection. We tested whether relationships between WHO short-term and annual AQG for particulates (PM10 and PM2.5)

and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are concordant worldwide and derived the annual limits for sulfur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O-3) based on the short-term AQG. We obtained air pollutant data over seven years (2004-2010) in seven cities selleck screening library from Asia-Pacific, North America and Europe. Based on probability distribution concept using maximum as the short-term limit and arithmetic mean as the annual limit, we developed a new method to derive limit value one from another in each paired limits for each pollutant with capability to account for allowable exceedances. We averaged the limit derived each year for each city, then

used meta-analysis to pool the limit values in all cities. Pooled mean short-term limit for NO2 (140.5 mu g/m(3) [130.6-150.4]) was significantly lower than the WHO AQG of 200 mu g/m(3) while for PM10 (46.4 mu g/m(3) [95CI:42.1-50.7]) and PM2.5 (28.6 mu g/m(3) [24.5-32.6]) were not significantly different from the WHO AQG of 50 check details and 25 mu g/m(3) respectively. Pooled mean annual limits for SO2 and O-3 were 4.6 mu g/m(3) [3.7-5.5] and 27.0 mu g/m(3) [21.7-32.2] respectively. Results were robust in various sensitivity analyses. The distribution relationships between the current WHO short-term and annual AQG are supported by empirical data from seven cities for PM10 and PM2.5, but not for NO2. The short-term AQG for NO2 should be lowered for concordance with the selected annual AQG for health protection. (C) 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Bufalin inhibited the cell migration and invasion of U-2 OS cells

Bufalin inhibited the cell migration and invasion of U-2 OS cells in vitro. Moreover, bufalin reduced MMP-2 and MMP-9 enzyme

activities of U-2 OS cells. Bufalin also suppressed the protein level of MMP-2 and reduced the levels of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as JNK1/2 and ERK1/2 signals in U-2 OS cells. Our results suggest that signaling pathways for bufalin-inhibited migration and invasion of U-2 OS cells might be find more mediated through blocking MAPK signaling and resulting in the inhibition of MMP-2. Bufalin could be a useful agent to develop as a novel antitumor agent by virtue of its ability to inhibit tumor cell migration and invasion. (c) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 29: 21-29, 2014.”
“Objective: To examine the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in renal tissues from patients with HBV-related glomerulonephritis.

Methods: Renal tissue biopsies taken from patients with HBV-related glomerulonephritis and two control groups were prepared for immunocytochemical detection of HBsAg and HBcAg. HBV cccDNA was examined using a nested


Results: Of the 63 HBV-related glomerulonephritis patients studied, click here HBsAg was present in the renal tissues of 48 (76.2%) and HBcAg in the renal tissues of 27 (42.9%). The HBsAg and HBcAg positive rates in HBV-related glomerulonephritis patients were higher than those of the 20 patients with non-HBV-related glomerulonephritis (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference when the HBV-related glomerulonephritis patients were compared with 12 patients with renal tuberculosis, renal atrophy, renal calculus, and renal tumor with positive serum HBV markers. In patients with HBV-related glomerulonephritis, there was no significant difference in HBsAg and HBcAg positive rates in renal tissue between patients with and without serum hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg). By nested PCR, two of five patients with HBV-retated glomerulonephritis were positive for HBV cccDNA.

Conclusion: The location and replication of HBV in

renal tissue make the kidney a potential reservoir for HBV. HBV cccDNA may be key in the search for anti-HBV drugs. (C) 2008 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier FK228 clinical trial Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The objective of this study was to evaluate the alcohol-metabolizing and antioxidative activities of complex herbal extract (CHE). The alcohol-metabolizing activity of CHE was evaluated by assessing alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity, acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, and protective effect against alcohol induced damage in in vitro and in vivo models. In this study, CHE treatment significantly increased ADH and ALDH activities and reduced cell death in alcohol-induced liver cell damage. Moreover, it also significantly reduced the serum alcohol and acetaldehyde concentrations in alcohol-fed rats.

Most of the metal-containing compounds were in the form of pseudo

Most of the metal-containing compounds were in the form of pseudo spherical particles, but compounds containing Bi(III) and FeOOH in the volume of AV-17 granule, were in the form of clew of nanometer fibers. Thermogravimetric analysis (in an N2 atmosphere) in the range 24-1000 degrees C of the metallic compounds containing polymer was also carried out. The metal-containing polymer samples were stable up to 120 selective HDAC inhibitors degrees C. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym

Sci, 2012″
“The aim of this work was to increase the solubility, stability and permeation of resveratrol by complexation with cyclodextrin-based nanosponges (NS). Nanosponges are recently developed hyper-cross-linked cyclodextrin polymers nanostructured to form three-dimensional networks; they are obtained by reacting cyclodextrin with a cross-linker such as carbonyldiimidazole. They have been used to increase the solubility and stability of poorly soluble actives. This study aimed at formulating complexes of resveratrol with beta-cyclodextrin nanosponges

in different weight ratios. DSC, FTIR and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) studies confirmed the interaction of resveratrol with NS. XRPD showed that the crystallinity of resveratrol decrease after encapsulation. The particle sizes of resveratrol-loaded NS are in between 400 to 500 nm with low polydispersity indices. Zeta potential is sufficiently high to obtain a stable colloidal nanosuspension. TEM measurement S3I-201 cell line also revealed a particle size around 400 nm for NS complexes. The in vitro release and stability of resveratrol complex were increased compared with plain drug. Cytotoxic studies on HCPC-I cell showed that resveratrol formulations were more cytotoxic than plain resveratrol. The permeation study indicates

that the resveratrol NS formulation showed good permeation in pigskin. The accumulation study in rabbit mucosa showed better accumulation of resveratrol NS formulation than plain drug. These results signify that resveratrol NS formulation can be used for buccal delivery and topical application.”
“Cluster headache (CH) is a neurovascular headache disease characterized by recurrent, strictly unilateral, severe pain attacks. Despite its typical clinical features, including circadian rhythm of the attacks and ipsilateral autonomic dysfunction, the underlying pathophysiology of CH is still unclear. Electrophysiological data point to central disinhibition of the trigeminal nociceptive system as one of the key mechanisms of CH pain. Therefore, altered habituation pattern and changes within trigeminal-facial neuronal circuits due to central sensitization seem to be involved. One biochemical correlate is probably represented in dysfunctions of serotonergic raphe nuclei-hypothalamic pathways.